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ГоловнаЛітература українська → Т.Г.Шевченко (Реферат) - Реферат

Т.Г.Шевченко (Реферат) - Реферат

Many works appeared in Ukraine to mark the 150th anniversary of Shevchenko's birth in 1961 and the centenary of his death in 1964. Among the more notable books published then in Ukraine were Yurii Ivakin's on the style of Shevchenko's political poetry (1961) and his two-volume commentary on Kobzar (1964–8); Vasyl S. Vashchenko's on Shevchenko's language (1963); Petro Prykhodko's on Shevchenko and Ukrainian Romanticism (1963); Hryhorii Verves's on Shevchenko and Poland (1964); a two-volume dictionary of Shevchenko's vocabulary (1914); and a two-volume bibliography of Shevchenkiana (1963) written on the territory of the former USSR during the years 1839–1959. The latter work was augmented in 1968 by F. Sarana's bibliography of Shevchenko studies published during the years 1960–64, but it also excluded works written outside the USSR.

In the 1970s the Institute of Literature of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR prepared three important 'collective' works: Shevchenkoznavstvo: Pidsumky i problemy (Shevchenko Studies: Summations and Problems, 1975) and Shevchenkivs'kyi slovnyk (A Shevchenko Dictionary, 2 vols, 1978), both of them under the chief editorship of Yevhen Kyryliuk; and Tvorchyi metod i poetyka T. H. Shevchenka (The Creative Method and the Poetics of T. H. Shevchenko, 1980).

In the postwar West, contributions to Shevchenko studies were published in the serials and books of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in Canada and the United States. These included a reprint of the four-volume Kobzar edited and annotated by Leonid Biletsky; and Taras Ševčenko, 1814–1861: A Symposium (1962), edited by George Yurii Shevelov and Volodymyr V. Miiakovsky. The Shevchenko Scientific Society (NTSh), which was reconstituted by migr scholars in Western Europe, North America, and Australia after the war, created a Shevchenko Studies Commission; the commission, headed by Pavlo Zaitsev, published his afore-mentioned biography of Shevchenko (1955) as well as Ševčenko: Sein Leben und sein Werk (1965), edited by J. Bojko (Yurii Blokhyn) and E. Koschmieder. Various articles about Shevchenko and about his works were also published in Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka, vols 161 (1953), 167 (1958), 176 (1962), 179–80 (1965), 187 (1976), and 214 (1991). The NTSh also prepared guides to Shevchenkiana in the libraries of Paris (1961) and Munich (1914).

In Munich, the Ukrainian Free University (UVU) published Bojko's Shevchenko i Moskva (Shevchenko and Moscow [ie, Russia], 1952); the Ukrainian version of his booklet Taras Shevchenko and West European Literature (1956); and, with the Slavic and Baltic Philology Seminar at the University of Munich, the collection Taras Ševčenko, 1814–1861 (1964). In 1944 Demian Horniatkevych's earlier booklet on Shevchenko as an artist was published in German translation as Taras Schewtschenko als Maler, and Ivan Keivan's new work on Shevchenko the artist also appeared that year.

In postwar North America, Mykola Denysiuk's publishing house in Chicago republished the Warsaw edition of Shevchenko's works in 14 vols (1959–63). Vol 13, edited by Bohdan Kravtsiv, was devoted to Shevchenko studies and contained selected articles by Panteleimon Kulish, Ivan Franko, Vasyl Shchurat, Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Serhii Yefremov, Oleksii Novytsky, Stepan Smal-Stotsky, Borys Navrotsky, and Filaret Kolessa. In 1961 Vasyl Barka's book about Shevchenko, Pravda Kobzaria (The Kobzar's Truth), appeared. The Shevchenko jubilee year of 1964 saw the appearance of Luka Lutsiv's Taras Shevchenko, spivets' ukrans'ko slavy i voli (Taras Shevchenko, the Singer of Ukrainian Glory and Freedom) and the collection of articles and translations Taras Chevtchenko, 1814–1861: Sa vie et son oeuvre, edited by K. Uhryn and A. Joukovsky (Arkadii Zhukovsky). Sixteen years later, George Stephen Nestor Luckyj compiled and edited an important collection of English-language and translated criticism, Shevchenko and the Critics, 1861–1980 (1980).

In the postwar West, booklets on Shevchenko's religious beliefs and philosophy were written by L. Biletsky (1949), Wasyl Jaszczun (1959), and Ivan Vlasovsky (1961); larger works on the subject include D. Buchynsky's Khrystyians'ko-filosofs'ka dumka Tarasa H. Shevchenka (Taras H. Shevchenko's Christian Philosophical Thought, 1962); Relihiinist' Tarasa Shevchenka (Taras Shevchenko's Religiosity, 1964) by Metropolitan Ilarion (n Ivan Ohiienko); and I. Stus's Relihiini motyvy v tvorchosti Tarasa Shevchenka (Religious Motifs in Taras Shevchenko's Works, 1989).

Entirely new interpretations of Shevchenko were published in North America in the 1980s. George Grabowicz proposed a new mythopoeic and psychoanalytical approach in The Poet as Mythmaker: A Study of Symbolic Meaning in Taras Ševčenko (1982; Ukrainian trans 1991). Examining the structures and paradigms of the bard's mythical thought, Grabowicz examines the relationship between Shevchenko's Ukrainian-language poetry and his Russian-language prose, the tension between Shevchenko's nativism and his universality as a poet, and the connection between his revolutionary fervor and his apparent fatalism. A few years later Leonid Pliushch contributed another pioneering work in the study of Shevchenko's mythopoeic vision, Ekzod Tarasa Shevchenka (Taras Shevchenko's Exodus, 1986). In his detailed analysis of two variants of Shevchenko's poem 'Moskaleva krynytsia' (A Soldier's Well), Pliushch formulates the fundamental syncretic 'mythology' unifying Shevchenko's literary oeuvre.

With the considerable lessening of political pressure and censorship that occurred in Ukraine in the late 1980s, several new works departing from the official Soviet Communist party line in Shevchenko studies were published in Kyiv. Ivan Dziuba's comparative study of Shevchenko's and A. Khomiakov's attitudes toward pan-Slavism, U vsiakoho svoia dolia (Each Has One's Fate, 1989), challenged a number of proscribed principles of Soviet-era Shevchenko studies by presenting Shevchenko's views as contrary to those of the Russian pan-Slavists and as advocating Ukrainian political independence. In the early 1990s several new, illustrated books about Shevchenko's life and works focused on his role as the awakener of Ukrainian national consciousness; and formerly forbidden works by Ukrainian migr scholars, including Zaitsev, Grabowicz, and Pliushch, were reprinted in Ukraine. Also, in 1993, Kyiv University began publishing a new scholarly periodical Shevchenkoznavchi studi (Shevchenko Studies). Dziuba's new study of Shevchenko's 'Kavkaz,' Zastukaly serdeshnu doliu (They Cornered Our Wretched Fortune, 1995), focused on the anti-imperialist motifs in Shevchenko's poetry and presented a critique of Russian imperialism, especially as it pertains to the tsarist conquest of Caucasia. Dziuba's essays on Shevchenko's legacy, many of which deal with comparative studies of Shevchenko and several Western European poets, were republished in his collection Z krynytsi lit (From the Wellspring of Years) in 2001.

The most important contributions to Shevchenko studies to appear in post-Soviet Ukraine have continued the analysis of the poet's mythopoeic and philosophical vision. Oksana Zabuzhko's Shevchenkiv mif Ukrany (Shevchenko's Myth of Ukraine, 1997) provides a detailed analysis of earlier literary scholarship on the subject and presents a synthetic interpretation of Shevchenko as a creator of a "nation-consolidating artistic mythology" in the tradition of Dante, Cervantes, and Goethe. George Grabowicz's collection of essays Shevchenko, iakoho ne znaiemo (The Shevchenko We Don't Know, 1998) continues his earlier attempts at uncovering the psychological and mythopoeic 'code' of Shevchenko's works (focusing, among others, on tracing the poet's 'symbolic autobiography' and analyzing the motifs of self-definition in his poetry), and presents a critique of 'mainstream' Shevchenko studies in post-Soviet Ukraine. Ie. Nakhlik's Dolia. Los. Sut'ba (Fate, 2003) provides a new comparative study of the works of Shevchenko, Adam Mickiewicz, and Aleksandr Pushkin.

An important new biographical and textological study of Shevchenko and his works is P. Zhur's Trudy i dni Kobzaria (The Kobzar's Work and Days, 2003) while the most significant study of Shevchenko's paintings and engravings is V. Iatsiuk's Maliarstvo i hrafika Tarasa Shevchenka (Painting and Graphic Art of Taras Shevchenko, 2003).

In 2001 A Concordance to the Poetic Works of Taras Shevchenko in 4 vols, compiled by Oleh Ilnytzkyj and G. Hawrysch, was copublished by the Shevchenko Scientific Society in the United States and the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press as the first publication of this type in the area of Ukrainian studies. Also in 2001, the first volume of the fullest annotated edition of Shevchenko's works (12 vols) was published in Kyiv under the editorship of Mykola Zhulynsky.