WWW.REFERATCENTRAL.ORG.UA - Я ТУТ НАВЧАЮСЬ

... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Roman Shukhevych (Роман Шухевич) - Реферат

Roman Shukhevych (Роман Шухевич) - Реферат

Реферат з іноземної мови

Roman Shukhevych (Роман Шухевич)

Roman Shukhevych

June 30, 1907 – March 5, 1950

Roman Shukhevych

Place of birth

Krakovets, Yavoriv, Galicia, Austria-Hungary

Place of death

Lviv, Ukraine

Allegiance

Ukrainian Insurgent ArmyUkrainische Gruppe Nachtigall

Years of service

1928-1950

Rank

General

Battles/wars

World War II

Roman Shukhevych (Ukrainian: Роман Шухевич; also known by his pseudonym Taras Chuprynka) (June 30, 1907 — March 5, 1950) was a Ukrainian politician and military leader, the leader of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. In 2007, he was posthumously awarded the title "Hero of Ukraine", the country's highest honor.

Contents

  • 1 Biography

    • 1.1 Childhood

    • 1.2 Youth

    • 1.3 Scouting

    • 1.4 Military training

    • 1.5 Activity in the Ukrainian Military Organization

    • 1.6 Arrest and Confinement

    • 1.7 Carpathian Ukraine

  • 2 Activities during the Second World War

    • 2.1 Controversy regarding the Nachtigall Battalion

  • 3 The Ukrainian Insurgent Army

  • 4 Family

  • 5 Legacy

  • 6 References

  • 7 External links

Biography

Childhood

Roman Shukhevych was born in the city of Lviv.[1] He was christened with the middle name Taras. Both parents were involved with the Ukrainian national revival in the 19th century. The family lays claim to dozens of active community activists in Politics, music, science and art. Shukhevych received his early education outside of Lviv. He returned to Lviv to study at the gymnasium there living with his grandfather, an ethnographer. His political formation was influenced by Yevhen Konovaletz - the commander of the Ukrainian Military organization who rented out a room in his fathers house from 1921-22.[2]

Youth

Monument on the School where Shukhevych attended in Lviv stating that the street has been named in his honour

In October 1926 Shukhevych entered the Lviv Politechnic Institute to study civil engineering.[3] In July 1934 he completed his studies with an engineering degree. At this time he was known for his athletic abilities for which he won numerous awards.[4] He was also an accomplished musician and with his brother Yuri completed studies in piano and voice a the Lysenko Music Institute. He sang solo on occasions with his brother in the Lviv opera.

Scouting

During his student years in the Gymnasium Roman became an active member of the Ukrainian Scouting organization Plast. He organized Plast groups and founded the "Chornomortsi" (Black Sea Cossacks) kurin in 1927.[5]

Military training

From 1928-1929 Roman did his military service in the Polish Army. As a tertiary student he was sent automatically for officer training, however he was deemed unreliable, and complete his military service as a private in the artillery in Volhynia.

Activity in the Ukrainian Military Organization

In 1925 Roman joined the Ukrainian Military Organization UVO. In 1926 Shukhevych was ordered to assassinate the Lviv school superintendent Stanisław Sobiński who had enforced a strict anti-Ukrainian stance in the education system. The assassination was carried out by Bohdan Pidhainy on October 19, 1926 .

In February 1929, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists was founded in Vienna. Shukhevych under the name "Dzvin" (Bell) became a representative of the Ukrainian Executive.

In 1930 he became one of the leaders of the social revolts that rocked all of western Ukraine. The Polish administration retaliated with a process of "pacification" which had the opposite effect and intensified anti-polish sentiment and increase in interest in Ukrainian nationalism.

Shukhevych continued to take part in numerous acts of protest against the anti-Ukrainian policies of the Polish administration. These included:

  • The co-ordination of a series of expropriations from Polish government offices in order to fund continued insurrection in the struggle for Ukrainian national determination.

  • The assassination on March 22 1932 of the Police commissioner Czechowski for the torture of Ukrainian political prisoners during their interrogations.

  • The assassination of the Soviet consul in Lviv as a protest for the Holodomor in Central Ukraine which was done by Mykola Lemyk who assassinated the Special emissary of the NKVD Alexiy Mayov.

  • The assassination of the minister of internal affairs Bronisław Pieracki who was responsible for brutal pacifications and the destruction of numerous Ukrainian cultural establishments and on whose orders brutal torture was carried out publicly on the Ukrainian population. The assassination was carried out July 15, 1934 in Warsaw by Hryts Matseiko.[6]

Shukhevych together with Stepan Bandera, Stepan Lenkavsky, Yaroslav Tetsko, Yaroslav Starukh and others developed the concept of "permanent revolution". According to their thesis the Ukrainian people being exploited by an occupier could only obtain freedom through continued pressure on the enemy. As a result the OUN took on the responsibility of preparing for an All-Ukrainian revolt. Shukhevych propagated the ideas that the revolution was an uncompromising conflict. The goal of this action was to educate the people to overcome the foe.

Shukhevych took an active part in developing a concept regarding the formation of a Ukrainian army. At that time two diametrically opposed arguments existed. The first was to form a Ukrainian army in the Ukrainian emigration, the second, a national army to be formed in Western Ukraine organized by Ukrainians.[7]

Arrest and Confinement

In July 1934 mass arrests took place regarding the death of Bronisław Pieracki. On July 18 Shukhevych was arrested and July 6-7 he was sent to the Bereza Kartuska Detention Camp.[8] Here he was sadistically tortured. In camp he organized a Ukrainian self-defense group. In December 1935 he was acquitted and released from the camp for lack of evidence.

During the Warsaw process against the OUN (November 18, 1935 - January 13, 1936) he was called as a witness. Shukhevych stood by his right to speak in Ukrainian for which he was fined 200 zloty. After greeting the court with the call "Glory to Ukraine" was once again interred.[9]

From January 19, 1935 Shukhevych was confined to the Bryhidka jail in Lviv.[10] He was incriminated for his membership in the Regional executive of the OUN. The lawyer in the process was his uncle: Stepan Shukhevych. Shukhevych was sentenced to 3 years in jail, however, because of the 1935 amnesty he was released from jail after spending half a year in a concentration camp and two years in prison.[11]

After being released in 1937, Shukhevych set up an advertising cooperative in March called "Fama" which became a front for the activities of the OUN. Soon outlets were set up throughout Galicia, Volyn and within Poland itself. The workers of the company were members of the OUN, often recently released political prisoners. The company was very successful and had sections working with the press and film, publishing booklets, printing posters, selling mineral water, compiling address listings and also opened its own transportation section.[12]

Loading...

 
 

Цікаве