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Educational System in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine - Реферат

Institutions of higher learning supported by public funds are not absolutely free. The state colleges and universities charge a fee for tuition or registration. This fee is higher for those who come from outside the state. Working one's way through college is commonplace.

Usually there is no admission examination required by a state university for those who have finished high school within the state. Sometimes a certain pattern of high school studies is necessary, however, and some state universities require a certain scholastic average, or average of high school grades.

Private colleges and universities, especially the larger, well-known ones such as Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, have rigid scholastic requirements for entrance, including an examination.

Higher Education Institutions

It has become common for the college program to be divided into broad fields, such as languages and literature, the social sciences, the sciences and mathematics, and the fine arts .Many colleges require all freshmen and sophomores to take one or two full-year courses in each of three fields. Certain Courses, such as English or history, may be required for all, with some election permitted in the other fields.

Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of regents or a board of trustees.

The executive head of a college or a university is usually called the president. The various colleges or schools which take up a university are headed by deans. Within a school or college there may be departments according to subject matter fields, each of which may be headed by a professor who is designated as department head or chairman. Other members of the faculty hold academic ranks, such as instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor. Graduate students who give some part-time service may be designated as graduate assistants or fellows.

Professional education in fields such as agriculture, dentistry, law, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, teaching, etc. is pursued in professional schools which may be part of a university or may be separate institutions which confine their instruction to a single profession. Often two, three, or four years of pre-professional liberal arts education are required before admission to a professional school. Three to five years of specialized training lead to professional degrees such as Doctor of Medicine, Bachelor of Law, etc.

Private and State Colleges and Universities

Harvard College was established in 1636, with the principal purpose of providing a literate ministry1 for colonial churches. It was a small institution, enrolling only 20 students in 1642 and 60 in 1660. It soon became more than a theological training school2 and established itself as a liberal arts college. The next institution of higher learning established in the American colonies was the College of William and Mary, which opened in 1693 at Williamsburg, Virginia. Other colleges were founded in the next century, but all of them remained small schools for long periods. Students entered at the age of 14 and remained until they were 18, and the curriculum, while rigidly academic and classic was by modern standards rather secondary in nature.

Private colleges and universities were established in various states. The first state university was the University of Virginia, founded in 1819. Some state universities have large endowment funds1 which provide a substantial portion of their support. Other sources of income are student fees, gifts and endowments.

In general, higher education in the USA may be divided into two broad fields: liberal arts and professional. Each of these fields may be further subdivided into undergraduate and graduate levels. The liberal arts program, on the undergraduate level, may be a two-year junior college course, or a four-year course leading to a degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. The four-year course is usually subdivided into a lower division (which may be called the junior college), consisting of the two first years, and the upper division, which is the last two years. The first two years continue the general education and specialization begins in the third year.

3. Educational System in Ukraine.

Ukrainians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to education is stated in the constitution of Ukraine. It's ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education establishment. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and evening courses and the system of state scholarship and grants.

Education in Ukraine is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The stages of compulsory schooling in Ukraine are: primary education for ages 6-7 to 9-10 inclusive; and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive, and senior school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of secondary school wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay at school for two more years. Primary and secondary school together comprise 11 years of study. Every school has a "core curriculum" of academic subjects, such as...

After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offer programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a technical field, or a profession.

After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium one can go into higher education. All applicants must take competitive exam. Higher education institution, that is institutes or universities, offer a 5-years programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidates degree or a doctoral degree.

Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Protectors are in charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has a number of faculties, each specializing councils which confer candidate and doctoral degrees.

The system of higher and secondary education in Ukraine is going trough a transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic freedom to faculties and students. All secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private fee-paying primary and secondary schools, some universities have fee-paying departments.

4. Results of Interrogation in Our Class

How do you evaluate

the following

Like

(number of pupils)

Don't like

(number of pupils)

Indifferent

(number of pupils)

School

27

6

3

Subjects:

Literature

21

5

12

Mathematics

11

23

5

History

19

7

12

Geography

29

6

3

Biology

23

10

6

English

32

4

2

Music

25

12

2

Art

20

11

8

Out-of-class activities

24

4

11

Sports/Gym classes

22

13

4

School library

27

10

2

School canteen

23

3

13

Learning to get along with others

25

9

5

Making friends

34

0

5

10

5. Used Literature:

  1. Internet

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