... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → General theory of globaliration (пошукова робота) - Реферат

General theory of globaliration (пошукова робота) - Реферат

broader sense for the products engaging little intellectual work will become a tendency deviation from which will be non-significant fluctuations. In this sense the USA actively placing its not so much ecologically but intellectually "impure", i.e. too simple productions has got a maximal guard from negative consequences of their own technical breakthrough.
* * *
Summing up the above said we may make a list of consequences for new technologies development:
" Exacerbation and acquisition of final - at the same time keeping the existing tendencies - compelling character between:
" developed and the rest countries;
" creating new technological principles by the developed countries (it is possible that we should use the term "the most developed / advanced countries") and the rest developed countries;
" Insulation, which take place in all countries, of people engaged in information technologies into internal "information community", its concentration in the territory of the developed countries; slow concentration of the "information community" of the world and together with it concentration of the world progress in the "most developed" countries;
" progress termination or its abrupt slowdown (at least technical) beyond the developed countries; social and financial degradation of the developing countries;
" reduction of the number of developed and the most developed countries because of hard competition.
2.1. Competition globalization - monopolies globalization
The process of distribution of information technologies is influenced by the process of globalization which is created by the process of distribution of information technologies but which has the same level of importance. Formation of the united world markets at least in the financial sphere and gradual integration of the global markets of different financial instruments into united world market includes into the agenda the question referring to creation of the global monopolies.
The reason of it is very simple: it is impossible to divide a single market.
Well-known examples of market division had either quite a short period of existence, as compared with the term of existence of the domination product, or were based on objective backsets. That made access to a part of competitors to any principally significant element of the market more complicated.
Information technologies reducing transaction expenses to minimum and also an "entrance fee" to the global financial markets destroy these backsets, eliminating any possibilities for any stable part of these markets. Term of existence of the dominating product - information - is going down to zero that makes practically impossible even temporal division of these markets.
In the result of it creation of global monopolies has got two simultaneous directions:
Formation of global monopolies in the global markets of separate financial instruments;
Formation of the united global monopoly in the result of integration of the said markets (reduction of "price for transformation" from one market to another down to a very small level).
The American government plays the role of the latter monopoly as it has very close contacts with the based in the territory of the USA transnational corporations including financial most of which due to the specifics of their activity do not need any organizational formation.
The matter may have the following form: the world policy will recently terminates its existence on the state level, transforming, on one part, to the national level of global groups of capitals and technologies and on the other part - to the internal level of political life of the country controlling over the major part of these capitals and technologies.
(In 1997 during the progress of the proamerican "team of young reformers", the Russian lobbyists were greatly amazed at finding out that the sphere of the most effective lobbying of several matters in the internal Russian politics had transformed from the Governmental level and the level of the President's Administration to the level of the Congress and the USA administration. In the USSR all matters having principal importance referring to development of the republics or regions should be solved not by their own authorities but by the curators of the corresponding directions in Moscow - in the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and in the Council of Ministers.)
2.2. "Euro": suppression of threat and destructive egoism
In 1999 the rest tow parts of the process of monopoly globalization will elapse against the most important event of the century - commencement of the process for euro integration. Commencement of European currency integration will be the first real after establishment in the beginning nineties of the total world financial crisis attempt which has chances to become a success to depth regional integration up to the level which will dominate over global integration.
Integration of "euro" will reduce foreign currency reserves of banking systems of the world (firstly of Europe) and will release from them a great amount of dollars (only in China about tens milliards).
Besides, settlements at European market of energy carriers are made in dollars. Transformation of these settlements into euro will be after integration of the latter simply a matter of time, let it even be long, but it will release several tens of milliard dollars.
At last purchasing capacity of the maximum European banknote in 500 euros will be higher of the purchasing capacity of the maximum banknote of the USA denominated in 100 dollars. It will transfer into euro the major part of the large sums in cash inEurope, and not only in the countries of the currency union but also in the neighboring countries, - also tens of milliard dollars.
Apparent non-solicitude of the "Eurozone" leaders of the future of such dollars carries an extremely destructive character of inactivity not only for the USA but also for the rest of the world. Actually this inactivity provokes the USA to strengthen the process of further destabilization of the financial system of the world.
European dollars and China dollars should be absorbed by other countries not to destabilize the USA on their coming back to the country. Such absorbation of the world reserve currency to a great extent happens only under the conditions of a very deep economic destabilization. Such extent may be only compared with its release under the process of euro integration.
Thus, egoistic indifference of Europeans to welfare of the main global competitor - the USA - in a strategic plan provokes the latter to make destructive steps in respect of not only the eurozone economic power of which is protected from a short-term influence but in respect of the third parties, i.e. countries which are less stable and due to this reason these countries are a favorable potential recipient of the releasing dollars.
The most threatened regions are the Latin America (first of all it is Brazil) and several countries of the South-Eastern Asia and may be China.
2.3. Global financial competition outlook: technical progress slowdown
Attempt to carry out sterilization of