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Valentine's Day - Реферат

In the Philippines, Valentine's Day is called "Araw ng mga Puso" or "Hearts Day". It is usually marked by a steep increase in the prices of flowers.

Similar Asian traditions

In Chinese culture, there is an older observance related to lovers, called "The Night of Sevens" (Chinese: 七夕; pinyin: Qi Xi). According to the legend, the Cowherd star and the Weaver Maid star are normally separated by the milky way (silvery river) but are allowed to meet by crossing it on the 7th day of the 7th month of the Chinese calendar.

An observance on the same day in Korea is called Chilseok, but its association with romance has long faded.

In Japan, a slightly different version of 七夕 (called Tanabata, which is said to mean 棚機 a weaver for a god) is celebrated, on July 7 on theGregorian calendar. The legend behind it is similar to the Chinese one. However, it is never regarded that the celebration is even remotely related with the St. Valentine's Day or lovers giving gifts to each other.

Conflict with religious fundamentalists

India

In India, Valentine's Day is explicitly discouraged by Hindu fundamentalists.[40] Since 2001 there has been each year violent clashes between shopkeepers dealing in Valentine related items and Shiv Sena die-hards, who oppose it as "cultural pollution from the west". Especially inMumbai and surrounding areas Bal Thackeray and others sent out signals before the day warning people not having to do anything with Valentine. Those who violate this are dealt with harshly by baton-holding brigands of Shiv Sena who lark in public places especially parks etc. chasing young people holding hands and others suspected to be lovers. In many parts of south India couples who are found in parks and other public places are immediately forced to marriage on spot by the Shiv Sena and other similar activists.

The Middle East

Valentine's Day is currently celebrated in Iran despite some restrictions made by government.Young Iranians are seen on this day going out and buying gifts and celebrating.

In Saudi Arabia, in 2002 and 2008, religious police banned the sale of all Valentine's Day items, telling shop workers to remove any red items, as the day is considered a non-Islamic holiday. In 2008 this ban created a black market of roses and wrapping paper.

References

  1. ^ ab Leigh Eric Schmidt, "The Fashioning of a Modern Holiday: St. Valentine's Day, 1840-1870" Winterthur Portfolio28.4 (Winter 1993), pp. 209-245.

  2. ^ Leigh Eric Schmidt, "The Commercialization of the calendar: American holidays and the culture of consumption, 1870-1930" Journal of American History78.3 (December 1991) pp 890-98.

  3. ^ ab "American Greetings: The business of Valentine's day".

  4. ^ Henry Ansgar Kelly, in Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine (Leiden: Brill) 1986, accounts for these and further local Saints Valentine (Ch. 6 "The Genoese Saint Valentine and the observances of May") in arguring that Chaucer had an established tradition in mind, and (pp 79ff) linking the Valentine in question to Valentine, first bishop of Genoa, the only Saint Valentine honoured with a feast in springtime, the season indicated by Chaucer. Valentine of Genoa was treated byJacobus of Verazze in his Chronicle of Genoa (Kelly p. 85).

  5. ^Oxford Dictionary of Saints, s.v. "Valentine": "The Acts of both are unreliable, and the Bollandists assert that these two Valentines were in fact one and the same."

  6. ^ "Valentine of Rome".

  7. ^ "Saint Valentine's Day: Legend of the Saint".

  8. ^ "Valentine of Terni".

  9. ^ "Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni".

  10. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Valentine".

  11. ^ The present Roman Martyrology records, at February 14, "In Rome, on the Via Flaminia near the Milvian Bridge: St. Valentine, martyr."

  12. ^Calendarium Romanum ex Decreto Sacrosancti Œcumenici Concilii Vaticani II Instauratum Auctoritate Pauli PP. VI Promulgatum (Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, MCMLXIX), p. 117

  13. ^Legenda Aurea, "Saint Valentine".

  14. ^ ab Materials provided by American Greetings, Inc. to History.com

  15. ^ History of Valentine's day, TheHolidaySpot.com

  16. ^ Jack B. Oruch, "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February" Speculum56.3 (July 1981:534-565)

  17. ^ William M. Green "The Lupercalia in the Fifth Century", Classical Philology26.1 (Jan. 1931), pp 60 69 pp60 69

  18. ^ Oruch, Jack B., "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February," Speculum,56 (1981): 534-65. Oruch's survey of the literature finds no association between Valentine and romance prior to Chaucer. He concludes that Chaucer is likely to be "the original mythmaker in this instance."[1]

  19. ^ "Henry Ansgar Kelly, Valentine's Day / UCLA Spotlight".

  20. ^ "Chaucer: The Parliament of Fowls".

  21. ^ Kelly, Henry Ansgar, Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine (Brill Academic Publishers, 1997), ISBN 90-04-07849-5. Kelly gives the saint's day of the Genoese Valentine as May 3 and also claims that Richard's engagement was announced on this day. [2]

  22. ^ Calendar of the Saints: 2 May; Saint Patrick's Church: Saints of May 2

  23. ^ Oruch 1981:539.

  24. ^ Domestic Violence, Discourses of Romantic Love, and Complex Personhood in the Law - [1999] MULR 8; (1999) 23 Melbourne University Law Review 211

  25. ^ "Court of Love: Valentine's Day, 1400".

  26. ^ full text in wikisource

  27. ^ History Channel.

  28. ^ http://www.ummah.net/Al_adaab/dawah/valentines.html

  29. ^ http://www.emotionscards.com/museum/vals.html

  30. ^ Schmidt 1993:209-245.

  31. ^ Quoted in Schmidt 1993:209.

  32. ^ Leigh Eric Schmidt, "The Commercialization of the calendar: American holidays and the culture of consumption, 1870-1930" Journal of American History78.3 (December 1991) pp 890-98.

  33. ^ Valentine`s Day versus Dragobete (Romanian)

  34. ^ "Da del Amor y la Amistad".

  35. ^ The Psychology of Carnaval, TIME Magazine, February 14, 1969

  36. ^ Video of Chavez joking about Valentine's day, youtube.com, 2009-01-31

  37. ^ Domingo, Ronnel. Among Asians, Filipinos dig Valentine's Day the most. Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-21.

  38. ^ Yuko Ogasawara (1998). University of California Press. ed. Office Ladies and Salaried Men: Power, Gender, and Work in Japanese Companies (illustrated ed.). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. pp. 98–113,142–154,156,163. ISBN 0520210441.

  39. ^ Korea rivals U.S. in romantic holidays, Centre Daily Times, February 14, 2009.

  40. ^ ab Arkadev Ghoshal & Hemangi Keneka (2009-02-14). "V-Day turns into battlefield". Times of India.

  41. ^ ab "Cooling the ardour of Valentine's Day". BBC News. 2002-02-03.

  42. ^ A man holding a banner in Mumbai on Valentine's Day protesting the holiday http://www.channelnewsasia.com/imagegallery/store/newsinpicture/phpiuR1xD.jpg

  43. ^ "While Muslim culture doesn't exactly embrace Cupid, Valentine's Day is gaining traction in Iran with the younger, more Westernized crowd, says Iranian-American filmmaker Shaghayegh Azimi, who has captured some of the romance in her movies. Increasingly, stores decorate windows with stuffed animals, heart-shaped chocolates and red balloons, and teenagers show their affection by holding hands in the streets of Tehran." Melanie Lindner Valentine's Day Around The World February 11, 2009 Forbes [3]

  44. ^ ab "Saudis clamp down on valentines". BBC News. 2008-02-11.

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