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Ukrainian folk art - Реферат


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Ukrainian folk art

Since ancient times Ukrainians have decorated their homes and embellished their lives with hand crafted objects. Folk handicrafts were used at times of celebration as well as in everyday life. Skills and traditions were passed from generation to generation. The love and appreciation of beauty created an esthetic environment. In homes, engraved wooden containers were decorated with scenes from the lives of folk heroes. Porcelain vases filled with flowers stood on carved wooden shelves. Blossoms were painted on stoves and embroidered onto shirts. Exotic flowers, branches of snowball trees (symbolizing the love for one's native land, a girl's beauty and a mother's love), tender buds and plants are depicted in bold colors.

It is thought that this style of ornamental painting appeared at the same time as the tradition to decorate eggs with colorful, magic symbols. It was believed that eggs adorned with those symbols would protect one from evil. After the introduction of Christianity, the meanings of these symbols changed. For example, a legend arose that these painted eggs formed out of Christ's tears. Meanings of some symbols have survived to this day: a lily, for instance, symbolized virginity. Buds and leaves represented birth, growth and the continuity of life. A blossoming poppy was thought to protect one from evil and negative energy. The Ukrainian decorative folk art of the 20th c. is a diverse, multi-faced and complicated artistic phenomenon, that has been developing for a century now in the sphere of traditional domestic art, professional artists activity and artistic trades, where craftsmen and artists make team-work aiming at preservation and further development of traditions. The qualitative changes take place in the art of the 20th c. They pertain to the functioning of the new forms of popular culture, its inclusion into cultural and artistic space, as well as social being of popular craftsmen, education, participation in international and domestic artistic exhibitions, public acknowledgment and celebration. A new type of popular craftsman is in the making, bright creative personalities tend to appear. People and folk creation become the foundation of national culture. Early in the 20th c. the creative intelligentsia turned to popular art, started collecting and bringing about museums, devising theoretical basis for the notion of "folk art". The mutual influence of popular and professional art, deep structural modifications, associated with forming of stylistic trends, esp.

Ukrainian decorative folk art

What is Tapestry

The art of weaving stands among the oldest the human ever tried to. Things that will keep you warm in the outer coldness. Things that beloved wife will lay her very care into. Things into which the young maid will lay her expectations into for the future fianc?. May it be the work of the spider which attracted attention of the first weaver, or the perturbations of the sunbeams seen and passed into the laces, is never known. But in many nations, the tapestries reflect the outer world the weaver is experiencing, and sometimes the life history and the inner world of him. Tapestry Construction

The tapestries are constructed from yarn made of Picardy wool, Italian silk and imported gold and silver threads. Linen and cotton were sometimes used in place of wool and silk. The interweaving of metal threads were used for high lighting and was introduced early into the art. The typical European tapestry is heavy and thick. The dyes take on the appearance of water color. The texture can be deliberately modified to change, shade, and enrich the color contrasts, by incorporating silk yarn, even to go as far as to create a magnificent sheen (see featured tapestry) which is sparingly, and strategically distributed through the tapestry. The art of tapestry weaving

Prior to the 1800's all tapestries were hand woven. There are two types of looms which tapestries are woven on, vertical and horizontal. The vertical loom produces a more perfect result, as the weaver at any time during his weaving can walk around to the back of the loom to inspect his progress, and effect of the work he is doing. With the horizontal loom, the weaver has to use a mirror placed below the warp threads. As the shuttle is moved back and forth he peers through the open threads, giving him the only evidence of any possible errors made. Consequently, until the piece is completed, the weaver has no idea if he has produced a tapestry free from mistakes. An average daily production was approximately 8 yards of fabric and it took eight hand spinners to keep the supply of yarn.