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Famoust Chemists of the world - Реферат


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"Famoust Chemists of the world"

Arrhenius Svante August

Svante Arrhenius was born in Sweden. He learned to read at the age of three and became interested in mathematics and physics at an early age. He proposed in his doctoral thesis that electrolytes split into ions in water. For his efforts he was awarded the barest of passes. Fortunately, William Ostwald and Jacobus vant Hoff promoted his work on electrolytic theory. He was awarded the 1903 Nobel prize for Chemistry for roughly the same thesis that had been nearly rejected nineteen years previously. He had universal interests in science and proposed the greenhouse effect.

Avogadro Amedeo

Amedeo Avogadro was a professor of physics in the University of Turin, but is best known for his contributions to chemistry. He followed the work of Gay Lussac closely and realised early on the difference between atoms and molecules. Avogadro suggested that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contained equal numbers of particles. The number of particles in a mole, 6,022x1023 , is called Avogadros Number in his honour.

Bohr Niels Henrik David

Niels Bohr was born in Copenhagen in denmark in 1885. His father was a professor of physiology at the University of Copengagen. Niels attended the same university and was a distinguished soccer player as well as a brilliant student.

Bohr studied at J. J. Thomsons Cavendish Laboratory and at Rutherfords laboratory. At the young age of 28, while working with Rutherford, he invented the first effective model and theory of the structure of the atom. His work ranks as one of the truly great examples of an imaginative mind at work. He was awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for physics for his study of the structure of atoms.

During Worls War 2, Bohr and his family escaped from occupied Denmark to the United States. He and his son, Aage, acted as advisers at the Los Alomos Atomic Laboratories, where the atom bomb was developed. Thereafter, Bohr concerned himself with developing peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Aage Bohr, Neils son was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1975.

Boyle Robert

Robert Boyle was born in Lismore, Ireland. He was regarded as one of the foremost experimental scientists of his time. It is thought that he was the first to collect gases by displacing water in an inverted flask. He discovered the relationship between the pressure and the volume of a gas in 1660. The relationship, pxV = constant, is known as Boyles law and was one of the first attempts to express a scientific principle in a mathematical form. Boyle separated chemistry from the realm of alchemy and estabilished it as a science. On the basis of experiment he defined an element as something that cannot be broken up into smaller substances. Robert Boyle devoted his life to experimental science, taking careful notes of each experiment, enabling other scientists to learn from his work. He is regarded as the father of experimental science.

Faraday Michael

The English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday was Born in Surrey, the son of a poor blacksmith. He was largely self-taught, never thought too highly of himself but was essentially a very happy man. He is best known today for his research into elctricity and magnetism. His reputation, in his own time, was based on his remarkable lecturing skills; the public at the time looked on electricity as a useful toy and was more interested in the more useful inventions of Stephenson and Joule. He was apprenticed to a bookbinder in 1805. Having attended a lecture by Humpray Davy, he presented Davy with a bound version of the lecture. Davy was so impressed with the detailed notes and drawings that he offered him a job as a laboratory assistant. From there on the relationship between the greatest scientists of their day flourished. He also collaborated with the mathematician, James Clerk Maxwell who expressed many of Faradays ideas in mathematical form.

Nobel Alfred Bernhard

Alfred Bernhard Nobel was born in Stockholm, Sweden on 31st October 1833. When he was 9 years old, his family moved to St. Petersburg. He was educated mostly privately and at the age of 16 was a sciencetifically trained chemist.

He loved literature and the natural sciences. He knew English, German, French, Swedish and Russian. He travelled to Paris and USA to continue his studies. Then he worked in his fathers factory. He began to experiment with nitroglicerine, the manufacture of which developed into a world industry. Then he invented new, improved explosive, dynamit. He received a patent in 1867.

But it isnt his only discovery. He discovered other explosives, use to minig, constructing highways, railways etc. He travelled a lot, so he wasnt at home and he was here only on temportary visits. He became very rich.

He died on 10th December 1896 in San Remo, Italy and left the major part of his large estate in trust to estabilished five prizes. They are awarded every year in physics, chemistry, psychology or medicine, literature and peace. The distribution of these prizes was begun on 10th December 1901, the fifth anniversary of Nobels dead. The peace prize is presented in Oslo, other prizes in Stockholm.

Two people from Czech republic were awarded the Nobel prizes: Professor Jaroslav Heyrovsk in 1959 for the discovery and developement of polarography and National Artist Jaroslav Seifert in 1984 for his outstanding contribution to poetry.

Ostwald Wilhlelm

Wilhelm Ostwald, the German chemist and philosopher became interested in chemistry at an early age; as an eleven year old he made his own fireworks. He developed the Ostwald process for the synthesis of nitric acid using a platinum-rhodium catalyst. He proposed that catalysts speed up chemical reactions by lowering the energy of activation. He is one of the founders physical chemistry, the theoretical branch of chemistry which deals with the properties and reactions of ions, atoms and molecules. Curiously enough, although he was one of the most eminent chemists of his time, he did not accept the developement of athomic theory until 1906. He was awarded the 1909 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on catalysis and on the conditions of chemical equilibrium and the velocities of chemical reactions.

Pauling Linus Carl

Linus Pauling was born in Portland,

Oregon in 1901. He is the only person ever to recieve a Nobel Prize for science and a Nobel Peace Prize. He received the science award in 1954 for his work in chemistry into the nature of the chemical bond. His work in chemistry is important both in range and importance of his contributions. He studied quantum mechanics with the phyzicists, Bohr and Schrdinger and combined quantum mechanics with the idea of electron pair sharing. He explained many important concepts in his classic book „The Nature of the Chemical Bond". From 1936 onwards he devoted much of his research to biochemical problems, including the structure of proteins, sickle cell anaemia and the effects of vitamins disease. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in promoting nuclear disarmament which led to the signing of a nuclear test ban in 1962.

Rutherford Lord Ernest

Ernest Rutherford was born in Nelson, New Zeland in 1871. He began work in J.J. Thompsons laboratory in 1895. He later moved to McGill University in Montreal where he became one of the leading figures in the field of radioactivity. From 1907 on he was professor at the University of Manchester where he worked with Geiger and Marsden.

He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1908 for his work on radioactivity. In 1910, with co-workers Geiger and Marsden he discovered that alfa-particles could be deflected by thin metal foil. This work enabled him to propose a structure for the atom. Later on he proposed the existence of the proton and predicted the existence of the neutron. He died in 1937 and like J.J. Thompson is buried in Wesminster Abbey. He was one of the most distinguished scientists of his century.

Thompson Sir Joseph John

J. J. Thompson was born in Menchester in 1856. His father was a bookseller and publisher. Thompson was Cavendish Professor of experimental physics, Cambridge University from 1894 - 1919. He was described as humble, devout, generous, a good conversationalist and had an uncanny memory. He valued and inspired enthusiasm in his students.Thompson was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics for his investigations of the passage of electricity through gases. In 1897, he discovered the electron through his work on cathode rays.Thompsons son, Sir George Paget, shared the Nobel Prize for physics with C.J.Davisson in 1937. Seven of Thompsons trainees were also awarded Nobel Prizes.

J.J. Thompson is buried in Wesminster Abbey close to some of the Worlds greatest scientists, Newton, Kelvin, Darwin, Hershel and Rutherford.