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Canada - Реферат

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Canada

Canada

Flag

Royal coat of arms

Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin)"From Sea to Sea"

Anthem: "O Canada"Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"

Capital

Ottawa45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.4°N 75.667°W / 45.4; -75.667

Largest city

Toronto

Official languages

English and French

Recognised regional languages

Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, Cree, Dne Sųłin, Gwich'in, Inuvialuktun, Slavey and Tłįchǫ Yati[1]

Ethnic groups

80.0% White/European (English, French, Scottish, Irish, German, others)[2]4.0% South Asian3.9% Chinese3.8% Aboriginal3.3% Other Asian2.5% Black2.5% Others[3]

Demonym

Canadian

Government

Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy

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Monarch

HM Queen Elizabeth II

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Governor General

Michalle Jean

-

Prime Minister

Stephen Harper

Legislature

Parliament

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Upper House

Senate

-

Lower House

House of Commons

Establishment

-

British North America Acts

July 1, 1867

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Statute of Westminster

December 11, 1931

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Canada Act

April 17, 1982

Area

-

Total

9,984,670 km2 (2nd)3,854,085 sq mi

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Water (%)

8.92 (891,163 km/344,080 mi)

Population

-

2009 estimate

33,574,000 [4] (36th)

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2006 census

31,612,897

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Density

3.2/km2 (219th)8.3/sq mi

GDP (PPP)

2007 estimate

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Total

$1.269 trillion[5] (13th)

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Per capita

$38,613[5] (12th)

GDP (nominal)

2007 estimate

-

Total

$1.436 trillion[5] (9th)

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Per capita

$43,674[5] (14th)

Gini

32.1 (2005)[6]

HDI (2006)

▲ 0.967 (high) (3rd)

Currency

Dollar ($) (CAD)

Time zone

(UTC−3.5 to −8)

-

Summer (DST)

(UTC−2.5 to −7)

Date formats

dd-mm-yyyy, mm-dd-yyyy, and yyyy-mm-dd (CE)

Drives on the

Right

Internet TLD

.ca

Calling code

1

Canada portal

Canada (IPA: /ˈknədə/) is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area,[6] and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest.

The land occupied by Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of aboriginal people. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled along, the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces.[7][8][9] This began an accretion of additional provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom, highlighted by the Statute of Westminster in 1931, and culminating in the Canada Act in 1982 which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

A federation comprising ten provinces and three territories, Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages both at the federal level and in the province of New Brunswick. Technologically advanced and industrialized, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G8, NATO, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Francophonie, and the United Nations.

CANADA

Etymology

Main article: Name of Canada

Jacques Cartier

The name Canada comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word, kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement". In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier towards the village of Stadacona.[10] Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village, but also the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona); by 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this region as Canada.[11]

From the early 17th century onwards, that part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River and the northern shores of the Great Lakes was named Canada, an area that was later split into two British colonies, Upper Canada and Lower Canada, until their re-unification as the Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country,[12] and Dominion was conferred as the country's title;[13] combined, the term Dominion of Canada was in common usage until the 1950s. Thereafter, as Canada asserted its political autonomy from Britain, the federal government increasingly used simply Canada on state documents and treaties, a change that was reflected in the renaming of the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day in 1982.[14]

History

Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history, and Territorial evolution of Canada

The fur trade was Canada's most important industry until the 19th century

First Nation and Inuit traditions maintain that indigenous people have resided on their lands since the beginning of time, while archaeological studies support a human presence in the northern Yukon from 26,500 years ago, and in southern Ontario from 9,500 years ago.[15][16] Europeans first arrived when the Vikings settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows around AD 1000; following the failure of that colony, there was no further attempt at North American exploration until 1497, when John Cabot explored Canada's Atlantic coast for England,[17] followed by Jacques Cartier in 1534 for France.[18]

French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608. These would become respectively the capitals of Acadia and Canada. Among French colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the Saint Lawrence River valley, Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while French fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. The French and Iroquois Wars broke out over control of the fur trade.

The English established fishing outposts in Newfoundland around 1610 and colonized the Thirteen Colonies to the south. A series of four Intercolonial Wars erupted between 1689 and 1763. Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the Treaty of Utrecht (1713); the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded Canada and most of New France to Britain following the Seven Years' War.

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