In the 19th century, the Westward expansion of the United States incrementally expelled large numbers of Native Americans from vast areas of their territory, either by forcing them into marginal lands farther and farther west, or by outright massacres. Under president Andrew Jackson, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which forced the Five Civilized Tribes from the east onto western reservations, primarily to take their land for settlement. The forced migration was marked by great hardship and many deaths. Its route is known as the Trail of Tears.
Conflicts generally known as "Indian Wars" broke out between U.S. forces and many different tribes. Well-known battles include the atypical Native American victory at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876, and the massacre of Native Americans at Wounded Knee in 1890, when the US Cavalry attempted to exterminate the Sioux Nation and killed all the men, women and children they could find. On January 31, 1876 the United States government ordered all surviving Native Americans to move into reservation or reserves.
Probably the most famous leader of Native Americans was Geronimo.
In the late 19th century reformers in efforts to civilized Indians adapted the practice of educating native children in Indian Boarding Schools. These schools, which were primarily run by Christians, proved traumatic to Indian children, who were forbidden to speak their native languages, taught Christianity instead of their native religions, and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their Indian identity and adopt European-American culture. There are also many documented cases of sexual, physical and mental abuses occurring at these schools.
As recently as the 1960s, Native Americans were being jailed for teaching their traditional beliefs.
According to 2003 United States Census Bureau estimates, a little over one third of the 2,786,652 Native Americans in the United States live in three states: California with 413,382, Arizona with 294,137 and Oklahoma with 279,559. as of 2000, the largest tribes surviving in the U.S. by population were Cherokee, Navajo, Choctaw, Sioux, Chippewa, Apache, Blackfoot, Iroquois and Pueblo.
3.2.Immigration and the creation of the USA.
The Vikings were probably the first Europeans to reach America. Although archeological remains have been found in Canada from about 2,000 years ago, so far there is no conclusive evidence for Vikings habitation in today's USA.
IN 1492, Columbus, an explorer and trader sailed westward from Spain, seeking a short sea route to the Orient.
He found, instead, a vast "New World" as it became known later, although Columbus himself named it the "Other World".
Following the Columbus' voyage, explorers, soldiers, and settlers from several European countries sailed to this land, soon called America, after Amerigo Vespucci, by most Europeans. Vespucci made voyages to the New World for Spain and Portugal beginning in 1497.
The discovery of the existence of America caused a wave of excitement in Europe. To many Europeans, the New World offered opportunities for wealth, power, and imperialism. During the 1500th Spaniards moved into what is now the Southeastern and Western United States. They took control of Florida and the land west of Mississippi River, basing their activity on the Western United States. They of Florida and the land west of Mississippi River.
The English and French began exploring eastern North America in about 1500.
Explorer Bartholomew Gosnold in 1607 established the first permanent English settlement in Northern America at Jamestown in Virginia.
Jamestown became the first real English colony and eventually led to the creation of the United States of America.
The Pilgrims were a group of English Protestant extremists who sailed from Europe to North America in 1620, in search of a home where they could freely practice their religion and live according to their own Biblical laws.
Although Queen Elizabeth I of England introduced the notion of punishing criminals by sending them to another country as early as 1619, when the first cargo of convicts was sent to the New World, the term transportation seems to have come into vogue around 1680 during Charles II's reign. It was intended to be an alternative to execution and it became a formal concept in 1717 with George III's 'Transportation Act'.
Between 1717 and 1775, when the American Revolution started, convicts were transported at the rate of about 1000 per annum and best estimates are that some 50,000 convicts from Britain were sent to America.
By the mid-1700's, most of the settlements had been formed into 13 British colonies. Each colony had a governor and legislature, but each was under the ultimate control of the British government.
All the land west of the Mississippi was under Spanish control, which was gradually incorporated into the (later) United States. The Native Americans were initially allowed to live between the 13 colonies and the Mississippi but were later pushed further west.
On April 19, 1775, the American Revolution broke out between the Americans and British. During the war – on July 4, 1776 – the American Congress officially declared independence and formed the United States of America by adopting the Declaration of Independence.
At the end of the American Revolution, the new nation was still a loose confederation of states. But in 1787, American leaders got together and wrote the Constitution of the United States of America. Among them were George Washington and James Madison of Virginia, Alexander Hamilton of New York, and Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania. The authors of the Constitution, along with other early leaders such as Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, won lasting fame as the Founding Fathers of the United States.
There was initially a lot of opposition to the new Constitution, as many felt that it didn't specifically guarantee enough individual rights. In response, 10 amendments known as a Bill of Rights were added to the document. The Bill of Rights became law on December 15, 1791. Among other things, it guaranteed freedom of speech, the right to bear arms, freedom of religion and the rights to trial by jury and peaceful assembly.
George Washington, (1732-1799), was an American general and Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) and later the first President of the United States of America under the U.S. Constitution (1789-97). He also served as President of the 1787 Constitutional Convention.
For the role he played in winning and securing American independence, George Washington is generally recognized as one of the most important figures in all of U.S. history.
Thomas Jefferson became president in 1800 and again in 1804, with a political philosophy became known as Jeffersonian democracy.
The Louisiana Purchase, the first major action of Jefferson's presidency, almost doubled the size of the United States. In 1801, Jefferson learned that France had taken over from Spain a large area between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains called Louisiana. Spain was weak nation, and did not pose a threat to the United States. But France-then ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte-was powerful and aggressive. Jefferson viewed French control of Louisiana as a danger to the United States. In 1803, Jefferson arranged the purchase of the area from France. The Louisiana Purchase added 2,144,476 square kilometers of territory to the United States.
Western farmers and pioneers, as well as city labourers and craftworkers, soon banded together politically to promote their interests. They found a strong leader in Andrew Jackson, and helped elect him president in 1828. Jackson took steps to reduce the power of wealthy Easterners and aid the "common man." At the same time, other Americans were working for such social reforms as women's rights, improvements in education, and the abolition of slavery.
In 1853, with the Gadsden Purchase, America bought from Mexico the strip of land that makes up the southern edge of Arizona and New Mexico. The US then owned all the territory of its present states except Alaska and Hawaii
3.3 America and WW2.
In the time period of 1939 to 1945, the world was involved in a crisis known as World War II. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese armed forces bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii resulting in the decision of the United States to enter into the war. ("Depression", 1) The United States was effected in many aspects as a result of being in World War II, in both positive and negative ways.
World War II meant the need for many men to join the armed forces. When these men went off to war they left their country, families, friends, and also their jobs. With all the jobs being, left their is a need for employees to keep the country running. The women of the United States are called to take on the jobs that the American men once had. Some of these jobs included: fire fighting, welding, riveting, operating drill presses, and driving taxi cabs. (Giampaoli, "Arms", 3) Programs were established, hoping to attract the women to the workforce. Some programs tried to " glamorize war work, as well as stress the importance of women working in non-traditional jobs."