Nunavut premier Paul Okalik took the lead in this regard in a First Ministers meeting discussing the Kyoto Accord.
The Metis are an ethic group of the Canadian prairies and Ontario. These communities of descent consist of individuals descended from marriages of Cree, Ojibway and Saulteaux women to French Canadian and British employees of the Hudson's Bay Company. Their history dates to the mid-seventeenth century, and they have been recognized as a people since the early eighteenth. There is no generally accepted standard for determining who is Metis and who not, so estimates of the number of Metis vary from 300,000 to 700,000 or more.
The most famous Metis was Louis Riel who led what are usually depicted as two failed rebellions, the Red River ''Rebellion'' in 1869 in the area now known as Saskatchewan. Reasonable doubts may be raised about whether either of these events was a rebellion. For example, the actions considered rebellious in 1869 were undertaken by Riel as the leader of a government recognized by Canada as in legitimate control of territory that didn't belong to Canada.
Canada negotiated the Manitoba Act with this government. After these rebellions, land speculators and other non-Metis effectively stripped the Metis of land by exploiting a government programme for its 'purchase' at unreal, law prices.
The Metis are not recognized at a First Nation by the Canadian government and do not receive the benefits granted to First Nation under the Indian Act. However, the new Canadian Constitution of 1982 recognized the Metis as an aboriginal group and has enabled individual Metis to sue successfully for recognition of their traditional rights, such as rights to hunt and trap. In 2003, a court ruling in Ontario found that the Metis deserve the same rights as other aboriginal communities in Canada.
2.2. European Colonisation
Europeans probably visited Canada around 1000, when the Vikings settled in Newfoundland.
Helge Ingstad, a Norwegian, had explored and surveyed the Northeast coast of the USA and the Maritimes in Canada and had determined from his findings and extensive analysis of the old sagas that Vinland the Good must be somewhere along the north-eastern coast of Newfoundland. In 1960 he determined a likely location where a Viking settlement may have been located. In 1961 excavation began to successfully uncover a complex settlement.
More permanent European visits came in the 16th and 17th century, as the French settled there.
In 1763, at the end of the Seven Years' War, France chose to keep its Caribbean Islands and to leave its North American colony, New France, to Britain, and in addition, after the American Revolution, many British Loyalists settled in Canada.
On July 1, 1867, with the passing of the British North America Act, the British government granted local self-government to a federation of four provinces formed from three of its North America Colonies, Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The former Province of Canada formed two provinces of the new Dominion of Canada, being partitioned into Quebec and Ontario. The Act created "one Dominion under the name of Canada." The term Dominion was chosen to avoid possible antagonizing of anti-monarchist sentiment in the United States and to reflect Canada's status as a self-governing colony of the British Empire.
Other British colonies and territories soon joined the Confederation; by 1880 Canada included all of its present area except for Newfoundland and Labrador.
Full control over the Dominion's affairs officially came in 1931 with the Statute of Westminster, and in 1982 with the adoption of Canada's constitution.
In the second half of the 20th century, some citizens of the mainly French-speaking province of Quebec sought independence in two referendums held in 1980 and 1995. in both referendums, the separatists cause, lead by the Party Quebecois, was defeated with 60% and 50.6% opposed to independence.
The Klondike Gold Rush.
The Klondike is a region of the Yukon Territory in northwest Canada, just east of the Alaska border. It lies around the Klondike River, a small stream that enters the Yukon River from the east where the town of Dawson is situated.
The Klondike is famous for the Klondike Gold Rush, which started in 1897. Gold is still mined in the area.
The Klondike Gold Rush was a frenzy of immigration to the Klondike and gold prospecting after gold was discovered there in the late 19th century. On August 16, 1896, rich gold deposits were discovered by George Carmack in Bonanza Creek, a tributary of the Klondike River near Dawson. News reached the United States on July 17, 1897 when the first successful prospectors arrived in Seattle, and within a month the Klondike stampede had begun.
The population in the Klondike in 1898 may have reached 40,000, threatening to cause a famine. Most prospectors landed at Skagway at the head of Lynn Canal and crossed by Chilkoot Pass or White Pass to Bennett Lake. Here, prospectors built boats that would take them the final 500 miles down the Yukon River to the gold fields.
The Chilkoot Pass was steep and hazardous, rising thousand feet in the last half-mile. It was too steep for pack animals and prospectors had to pack their equipment and supplies to the top. Some 1,500 steps were carved into the ice to aid travel up the pass. Conditions on White Pass were even worse. It was known as the Dead Horse Trail with about 3,000 animals dying along the rout.
Throughout this period this period, the North West Mounted Police, under the command of Sam Steele maintained a firm grip on the activities of the prospectors to ensure the safety of the population as well as enforcing the laws and sovereignty of Canada. As a result, this gold rush has been described as the most peaceful and orderly of its type in history. The effectiveness of the Mounties in this period made the police force famous around the world.
The gold rush remains an important event in the history of the city of Edmonton, which to this day celebrates Klondike Day, an annual summer fair with a Klondike gold rush theme.
3.1. Native Americans
Based on anthropological and genetic evidence, scientists generally agree that most Native Americans descend from people who migrated from Siberia across the Bering Strait, at least 12,000 years ago.
One result of these successive waves of migration is that large groups of Native Americans with similar languages and perhaps physical characteristics as well, moved into various geographic areas of North, and then later, Central and South America.
While many Native American groups retained a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle through the time of European occupation of New World, in some regions, especially in the Mississippi River valley of the United States, they built advanced civilizations with monumental architecture and large-scale organization into cities and states.
It was not acceptable to American immigrants in the 18th-19th centuries that the people they regarded as "savages" had built civilizations and by policy, most archeological remains were destroyed and records obliterated.
The European colonization of the Americas forever changed the lives and cultures of Native Americans. In the 15th to 19th centuries, their populations were ravage, by the results of displacement, disease, and in many cases by warfare with European groups and enslavement by them. The first Native American group encountered by Columbus, the 250,000 Arawakas, were violently enslaved. Only 500 survived by the year 1550, and the group was extinct before 1650.
In the 15th century Spaniards and other Europeans brought horses to the Americas. Some of these animals escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild. Ironically, the horse had originally evolved in the Americas, but the last American horses, died out at the end of the last ice age. The re-introduction of the horse had a profound impact of Native American culture in the Great Plains of North America. This new mode of travel made it possible for some tribes to greatly expand their territories, exchanged goods with neighboring tribes, and more easily captures game.
Europeans also brought disease against which the Native Americans had no immunity. Some historians estimate that up to 80% of some native populations may have died due to European disease.