England, Canada,Americа (еnglish speaking countries)
History of England.
The Anglo-Saxons, Celts, Vikings and Dark Ages.
The Norman Invasion.
Civil War and Oliver Cromwell. The Industrial Revolution.
The British Empire.
World War I and the "inter-war" years.
World War II and the 'post-war' years.
The Klondike Gold Rush.
Immigration and the creation of the USA.
America and WW2.
The making of the USA.
4.Ukraine and English speaking countries.
1. History of England.
The Romans, led by Julius Caesar, landed, in 55 and 54 BC, in the part of the island of Great Britain which was later to become South East England. Nevertheless, they did not come as conquerors at that time. It was only a century later, in 43 AD, under the emperor Claudius, that the Romans occupied England. In order to protect themselves from the Picts, the inhabitants of Scotland at that time, the Romans under the emperor Hadrian had a wall built from east to west, Hadrian's Wall, to defend their southern British provinces and marc the boundary between England and Scotland, as they were to become later.
The Romans constructed a highly effective internal infrastructure to underpin their military occupation, building long, straight roads the length and breadth of the country, most of which centered on Londium (the Roman name for London). Many viaducts and aqueducts still remain across England, along with the Roman city walls of Chester York and others.
The indigenous, mostly Celtic population was suppressed with efficiency, although numerous, and often extremely bloody, uprisings occurred all through their occupation. The most notable uprisings were that of the Iceni (and other tribes) led by Boudicca or "Boadicea" in 61-62 AD.
The Romans held England for almost four centuries, never venturing much into Wales and kept out of Scotland by the Picts, before their presence weakened and by the 5th century they had left.
1.2.The Anglo-Saxons, Celts, Vikings and the Dark Ages.
The dark Ages were times when history was oral, and the local Celts and the Anglo-Saxons and Viking invaders all used songs, sagas and oral poetry to record and retell events. Much became lost; of what remains, there is a complex mix of history, legend and myth, King Arthur and knights being just one example of inadequate historical source evidence.
What is now England was progressively settled by successive and often complementary waves of Germanic tribesmen. Among them the Angles, Saxons and Jutes together with many other tribes who had been partly displaced on mainland Europe. Increasingly the Celtics population was pushed westwards and northwards. The settlement of England is known as the Saxon Conquest or the Anglo-Saxon settlement.
In the decisive Battle of Deorham, in 577, the Celtic people of Southern Britain were separated into the South-West nation of Cornwall and Devon and the Welsh by the advancing Saxons.
Beginning with the raid in 793 on the monastery at Lindisfarne, Vikings made many raids on England.
The Saxons founded a settlement beside the River Sheaf, (later to become Sheffield in South Yorkshire) and it was near there that Egbert of Wessex received the submission of Eanred of Northumbria in 829 and so became the first Saxon overlord of all England.
Having started with plundering raids, the Vikings later began to settle in England and trade, eventually ruling the Danelaw from the late 9th century.
There are many traces of Vikings in England today, for instance many words in the English language; the similarity of Old English and Old Norse led to much borrowing. The major Viking settlement was in York, capital of the kingdom of York.
There were four major areas: Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex and East Anglia. The kingdoms were powerful institutions and were characterised by many personalities recorded by history, but usually only after the record-keeping Normans took over, so much of their history is debatable.
1.3.The Norman Invasion
The Normans were Viking and Slav settlers in France who had become the ruling elite, displacing the Gallic and Celtic tribes of France from power. A long series of disputes between the Normans and the English resulted in the invasion of England.
The defeat of King Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 at the hands of William of Normandy, later styled William I of England and the subsequent Norman takeover of Saxon, Celtic and Viking England led to a major turning-point in the history of the small, isolated, island state.
The Normans kept written records and recorded all aspects of life in England. In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey of the entire population and their lands and property for tax purposes. This remains the most comprehensive survey of a country in medieval Europe.
The Normans also built in stone: in the 11th and 12th centuries, many hundreds of small churches were built across England and most not only still stand, but remain in use.
The English Middle Ages were o be characterised by civil war, international war, occasional insurrection, and widespread political intrigue amongst the aristocratic and monarchic elite.
At the same time, a ruling elite was being formed in England that began in the 13th century to move England away from a feudal system ruled by an autocratic monarch to the beginnings of the democracy. Simon de Montfor was instrumental in forming first English Parliament in 1265.
In the 15th century, a major civil war took place, known as the Wars of the Roses, as the two sides, the House of Lancaster and the House of York were symbolized by a red rose and a white rose respectively. It ended in the victory of Henry Tudor, who became Henry VII, at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, where the Yorkist King Richard III was killed. Henry's son King Henry VIII (1491-1547) was king of England and later king of Ireland from 1509 until his death. He was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty. He is famous for having been married six times and for taking and using the most power of any British king.
Several significant pieces of legislation were passed during Henry VIII's reign. They included the several Acts which severed the English Church from the Roman Catholic Church and established Henry as the head of the Protestant Church of England, the Acts of Union 1536-1543 (which united England and Wales into one nation) and the Witchcraft Act 1542, which punished ''invoking or conjuring an evil spirit'' with death.
Elizabeth I (1533-1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 1558 until her death. Sometimes referred to as The Virgin Queen or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth I was the fifth and the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. She reigned during a period of great religious turmoil in English history when Catholics attempted the throne, at one point through Elizabeth's sister, Marry Queen of Scots.
1.5.Civil War and Oliver Cromwell. The Industrial Revolution.
The major English Civil War broke out in 1642, largely as a result of an ongoing series of conflicts between the then King, Charles I, who wanted more power than acceptable to the people. The defeat of the Royalist army by the New Model Army of Parliament at the Battle of Naseby in June 1645 effectively destroyed the King's armies.
The King fled to Scotland but was handed over to the English Parliament for money by the Scots. He escaped and the English Civil War re-started, although it was to be only a short conflict, with Parliament quickly securing the country.
The capture and subsequent trial of Charles I led to his execution by beheading in1649 in London. The monarchy was abolished and Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protector and Head of State. After he died, his son Richard Cromwell acceded him as Lord Protector, but soon abdicated. The monarchy was restored in 1660, after Parliament decided to have a royal Head of State, with King Charles II returning to London.
From about 1750, there was massive change as a largely agrarian society was transformed by technological advances and increasing mechanization, which was the Industrial Revolution. Much of the agricultural workforce was uprooted from the countryside and moved into large urban centers of production, as the steambased production factories could undercut the traditional cottage industries, due to economies of scale and the increased output per worker made possible by new technology. The consequent overcrowding into areas with little supporting infrastructure saw dramatic increases in the rise of infant mortality, social problems and many workers saw their livelihoods threatened by new technology. Of these, some frequently sabotage factories. These saboteurs were known as ''Luddites''.