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Endocrine system - Реферат


Secreted hormone

From cells


Androgens (chiefly testosterone)

Leydig cells

Anabolic: growth of muscle mass and strength, increased bone density, growth and strength,

Virilizing: maturation of sex organs, formation of scrotum, deepening of voice, growth of beard and axillary hair.


Sertoli cells

Prevent apoptosis of germ cells[12]


Sertoli cells | Inhibit production of FSH


These originate either from the ovarian follicle or the corpus luteum.

Secreted hormone

From cells



Granulosa cells, theca cells

Support pregnancy[13]:

  • Convert endometrium to secretory stage

  • Make cervical mucus permeable to sperm.

  • Inhibit immune response, e.g., towards the human embryo

  • Decrease uterine smooth muscle contractility[13]

  • Inhibit lactation

  • Inhibit onset of labor.


  • Raise epidermal growth factor-1 levels

  • Increase core temperature during ovulation[14]

  • Reduce spasm and relax smooth muscle (widen bronchi and regulate mucus)


  • Reduce gall-bladder activity[15]

  • Normalize blood clotting and vascular tone, zinc and copper levels, cell oxygen levels, and use of fat stores for energy

  • Assist in thyroid function and bone growth by osteoblasts

  • Increase resilience in bone, teeth, gums, joint, tendon, ligament, and skin

  • Promote healing by regulating collagen

  • Provide nerve function and healing by regulating myelin

  • Prevent endometrial cancer by regulating effects of estrogen


Theca cells

Substrate for estrogen

Estrogens (mainly estradiol)

Granulosa cells


  • Promote formation of female secondary sex characteristics

  • Accelerate height growth

  • Accelerate metabolism (burn fat)

  • Reduce muscle mass

  • Stimulate endometrial growth

  • Increase uterine growth

  • Maintain blood vessels and skin

  • Reduce bone resorption, increase bone formation

Protein synthesis:

  • Increase hepatic production of binding proteins


  • Increase circulating level of factors 2, 7, 9, 10, antithrombin III, plasminogen

  • Increase platelet adhesiveness

  • Increase HDL, triglyceride, height growth

  • Decrease LDL, fat deposition

Fluid balance:

  • Regulate salt (sodium) and water retention

  • Increase growth hormone

  • Increase cortisol, SHBG

Gastrointestinal tract:

  • Reduce bowel motility

  • Increase cholesterol in bile


  • Increase pheomelanin, reduce eumelanin


  • Support hormone-sensitive breast cancers [16] (Suppression of production in the body of estrogen is a treatment for these cancers.)

Lung function:

  • Promote lung function by supporting alveoli.[17]


Granulosa cells

Inhibit production of FSH from anterior pituitary

Placenta (when pregnant)

Secreted hormone


From cells


Progesterone (Primarily)

Support pregnancy[13]:

  • Inhibit immune response, towards the fetus.

  • Decrease uterine smooth muscle contractility[13]

  • Inhibit lactation

  • Inhibit onset of labor.

  • Support fetal production of adrenal mineralo- and glucosteroids.

Other effects on mother similar to ovarian follicle-progesterone

Estrogens (mainly Estriol) (Also Primarily)

Effects on mother similar to ovarian follicle estrogen

Human chorionic gonadotropin



promote maintenance of corpus luteum during beginning of pregnancy

Inhibit immune response, towards the human embryo.

Human placental lactogen



increase production of insulin and IGF-1

increase insulin resistance and carbohydrate intolerance


Fetal Trophoblasts

suppress FSH

Uterus (when pregnant)

Secreted hormone


From cells




Decidual cells

milk production in mammary glands


Decidual cells

Unclear in humans and animals


  1. ^ Collier, Judith. et.al (2006). Oxford Handbook of Clinical Specialties 7th edn.. Oxford. pp. 350–1. ISBN 0-19-853085-4.

  2. ^ University of Virginia - HISTOLOGY OF THE ENDOCRINE GLANDS

  3. ^ Kasper et al. (2005). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. McGraw Hill. pp. 2074. ISBN 0-07-139140-1.

  4. ^ Bhowmick NA, Chytil A, Plieth D, et al (February 2004). "TGF-beta signaling in fibroblasts modulates the oncogenic potential of adjacent epithelia". Science303 (5659): 848–51. doi:10.1126/science.1090922. PMID 14764882.

  5. ^ ab Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E (June 2005). "Oxytocin increases trust in humans" . Nature435 (7042): 673–6. doi:10.1038/nature03701. PMID 15931222. http://www.iew.unizh.ch/home/kosfeld/papers/ottrust_nature.pdf.

  6. ^ ab Kraft U (Jun/July 2007). "Rhythm and Blues". Scientific American Mind. http://www.sciamdigital.com/index.cfm?fa=Products.ViewIssuePreview&ARTICLEID_CHAR=C001082B-2B35-221B-641CA6ED64E8BCF3.

  7. ^ abc Kaushansky K (May 2006). "Lineage-specific hematopoietic growth factors". N Engl J Med.354 (19): 2034–45. doi:10.1056/NEJMra052706. PMID 16687716.

  8. ^ Frhbeck G (July 2004). "The adipose tissue as a source of vasoactive factors". Curr Med Chem Cardiovasc Hematol Agents2 (3): 197–208. doi:10.2174/1568016043356255. PMID 15320786. http://openurl.ingenta.com/content/nlm?genre=article&issn=1568-0169&volume=2&issue=3&spage=197&aulast=Frhbeck.

  9. ^ Colorado State University - Biomedical Hypertextbooks - Somatostatin

  10. ^ Endo K, Matsumoto T, Kobayashi T, Kasuya Y, Kamata K (February 2005). "Diabetes-related changes in contractile responses of stomach fundus to endothelin-1 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats" ([dead link] – Scholar search). J Smooth Muscle Res41 (1): 35–47. doi:10.1540/jsmr.41.35. PMID 15855738. http://joi.jlc.jst.go.jp/JST.JSTAGE/jsmr/41.35?from=PubMed.

  11. ^ ab Physiology at MCG 5/5ch4/s5ch4_17

  12. ^ Pentikinen V, Erkkil K, Suomalainen L, Parvinen M, Dunkel L (May 2000). "Estradiol acts as a germ cell survival factor in the human testis in vitro". J Clin Endocrinol Metab.85 (5): 2057–67. doi:10.1210/jc.85.5.2057. PMID 10843196. http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10843196.

  13. ^ abcd Placental Hormones

  14. ^ Physiology at MCG 5/5ch9/s5ch9_13

  15. ^ Hould F, Fried G, Fazekas A, Tremblay S, Mersereau W (1988). "Progesterone receptors regulate gallbladder motility". J Surg Res45 (6): 505–12. doi:10.1016/0022-4804(88)90137-0. PMID 3184927.

  16. ^ Hormonal Therapy

  17. ^ Massaro D, Massaro GD (2004). "Estrogen regulates pulmonary alveolar formation, loss, and regeneration in mice". American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology287 (6): L1154–9. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00228.2004. PMID 15298854.