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Endocrine system - Реферат

Oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone are not secreted in the posterior lobe, merely stored.

Intermediate pituitary lobe (pars intermedia)

Secreted hormone

Abbreviation

From cells

Effect

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

MSH

Melanotroph

melanogenesis by melanocytes in skin and hair.

Thyroid

Secreted hormone

Abbreviation

From cells

Effect

Triiodothyronine

T3

Thyroid epithelial cell

potent form of thyroid hormone: increase the basal metabolic rate & sensitivity to catecholamines,

affect protein synthesis

Thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine

T4

Thyroid epithelial cells

less active form of thyroid hormone: increase the basal metabolic rate & sensitivity to catecholamines,

affect protein synthesis, often functions as a prohormone

Calcitonin

Parafollicular cells

Construct bone

reduce blood Ca2+

Parathyroid

Secreted hormone

Abbreviation

From cells

Effect

Parathyroid hormone

PTH

Parathyroid chief cell

increase blood Ca2+: *indirectly stimulate osteoclasts

  • Ca2+ reabsorption in kidney

  • activate vitamin D

(Slightly) decrease blood phosphate:

  • decreased reuptake in kidney but increased uptake from bones

  • activate vitamin D

Heart

Secreted hormone

Abbreviation

From cells

Effect

Atrial-natriuretic peptide

ANP

Cardiac myocytes

Reduce blood pressure by:

reducing systemic vascular resistance, reducing blood water, sodium and fats

Brain natriuretic peptide

BNP

Cardiac myocytes

(To a lesser degree than ANP) reduce blood pressure by:

reducing systemic vascular resistance, reducing blood water, sodium and fats

Striated muscle

Secreted hormone

From cells

Effect

Thrombopoietin

Myocytes

stimulates megakaryocytes to produce platelets[7]

Skin

Secreted hormone

From cells

Effect

Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3)

Inactive form of Vitamin D3

Adipose tissue

Secreted hormone

From cells

Effect

Leptin (Primarily)

Adipocytes

decrease of appetite and increase of metabolism.

Estrogens[8] (mainly Estrone)

Adipocytes

Stomach

Secreted hormone

Abbreviation

From cells

Effect

Gastrin (Primarily)

G cells

Secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells

Ghrelin

P/D1 cells

Stimulate appetite,

secretion of growth hormone from anterior pituitary gland

Neuropeptide Y

NPY

increased food intake and decreased physical activity

Secretin

S cells

Secretion of bicarbonate from liver, pancreas and duodenal Brunner's glands

Enhances effects of cholecystokinin Stops production of gastric juice

Somatostatin

D cells

Suppress release of gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin, motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), enteroglucagon

Lowers rate of gastric emptying Reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine.[9]

Histamine

ECL cells

stimulate gastric acid secretion

Endothelin

X cells

Smooth muscle contraction of stomach[10]

Duodenum

Secreted hormone

From cells

Effect

Cholecystokinin

I cells

Release of digestive enzymes from pancreas

Release of bile from gallbladder hunger suppressant

Liver

Secreted hormone

Abbreviation

From cells

Effect

Insulin-like growth factor (or somatomedin) (Primarily)

IGF

Hepatocytes

insulin-like effects

regulate cell growth and development

Angiotensinogen and angiotensin

Hepatocytes

vasoconstriction

release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex dipsogen.

Thrombopoietin

Hepatocytes

stimulates megakaryocytes to produce platelets[7]

Pancreas

Secreted hormone

From cells

Effect

Insulin (Primarily)

Islet cells

Intake of glucose, glycogenesis and glycolysis in liver and muscle from blood

intake of lipids and synthesis of triglycerides in adipocytes Other anabolic effects

Glucagon (Also Primarily)

a Islet cells

glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver

increases blood glucose level

Somatostatin

d Islet cells

Inhibit release of insulin[11]

Inhibit release of glucagon[11] Suppress the exocrine secretory action of pancreas.

Pancreatic polypeptide

PP cells

Unknown

Kidney

Secreted hormone

From cells

Effect

Renin (Primarily)

Juxtaglomerular cells

Activates the renin-angiotensin system by producing angiotensin I of angiotensinogen

Erythropoietin (EPO)

Extraglomerular mesangial cells

Stimulate erythrocyte production

Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3)

Active form of vitamin D3

Increase absorption of calcium and phosphate from gastrointestinal tract and kidneys inhibit release of PTH

Thrombopoietin

stimulates megakaryocytes to produce platelets[7]

Adrenal glands

Adrenal cortex

Secreted hormone

From cells

Effect

Glucocorticoids (chiefly cortisol)

zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells

Stimulation of gluconeogenesis

Inhibition of glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue Mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues Stimulation of fat breakdown in adipose tissue anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive

Mineralocorticoids (chiefly aldosterone)

Zona glomerulosa cells

Increase blood volume by reabsorption of sodium in kidneys (primarily)

Potassium and H+ secretion in kidney.

Androgens (including DHEA and testosterone)

Zona fasciculata and Zona reticularis cells

Virilization, anabolic

Adrenal medulla

Secreted hormone

From cells

Effect

Adrenaline (epinephrine) (Primarily)

Chromaffin cells

Fight-or-flight response:

  • Boost the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles (by increasing heart rate and stroke volume, vasodilation, increasing catalysis of glycogen in liver, breakdown of lipids in fat cells)

  • Dilate the pupils

  • Suppress non-emergency bodily processes (e.g., digestion)

  • Suppress immune system

Noradrenaline (norepinephrine)

Chromaffin cells

Fight-or-flight response:

  • Boost the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles (by increasing heart rate and stroke volume, vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure, breakdown of lipids in fat cells)

  • Increase skeletal muscle readiness.

Dopamine

Chromaffin cells

Increase heart rate and blood pressure

Enkephalin

Chromaffin cells

Regulate pain

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