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Essay: years of un peacekeeping efforts - Реферат

its biological, chemical and nuclear weapons programs. From morning some protesters-natives from Arab countries - Syria, Pakistan and Iraq - held demonstrations in Trafalgar Square and near prime minister's residence situated in Downing street, 10. British people also fully agree with their government decision. Russian position is discussed by mass media. Moscow is said to have too little assets to seriously affect the situation. Today "Times" wrote:"Washington made it clear that the arguments of the country whose economic situation fully depends on financial assistance of Western countries won't stop him.
Paris is reserved in its comments connected with the Iraqi bombing. France always adhered to diplomatic crisis regulation.
NATO Ministers of Defense have gathered in Brussels to discuss their position regarding the situation in the Persian Gulf. Nobody have expressed their wish to participate in military actions.
The UN Security Council held a special debate Wednesday evening on the military action. Diplomats said the meeting of the 15-nation council would enable members to voice their views on the crisis, but no council action was expected in the form of a resolution or other decision. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan expressed regret the standoff had not been resolved diplomatically. Richard Butler, UNSCOM chairman, ordered UNSCOM staff out of Baghdad. The entire staff was evacuated before dawn on Wednesday.
Iraqi officials said at least 25 people had died and 75 were wounded in the Iraqi capital alone during two days of airstrikes.
The UNO, established to replace the existing League of Nations, faces very difficult situation in connection with Iraqi bombardment. The beginning of effective Iraqi resistance came with a rapidity which surprised us all, and we were perhaps psychologically unprepared for the sudden transition from peacemaking to fighting. Some say that Clinton wanted to delay the floor debate and vote on whether he should be impeached over his actions stemming from an affair with former White House intern Monica Lewinski. Some questioned America's moral right to bomb Iraq, while others demanded that this time the US do the job properly and get rid of Saddam Hussein.
But by doing so the USA and Britain have violated the UN Charter according to which: "All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations." [ ]
Many political leaders doubt the necessity to preserve the UNO as there were drastic actions made by it. I think that the main reason for it is that the USA is the main financial source of the UNO and the latter in its turn is not willing to lose it.
In some way, my work can be continued as the events that happen in the world change the situation greatly. The future will show whether the UNO will be preserved or whether it'll lose its unique character.
1. Basic Facts about the UN. Sales No E.95.1.31;
2. Bush G., Scowcroft B. Why We didn't Remove Saddam. Times, June 21, 1998;
3. Contreras Joseph, Watson Russel. Saddam Old Tricks. News Week, June 15, 1998;
4. Documents of the United Nations Department of Public Information;
5. Dr. Jan Azud Csc. The Peaceful Settlement of Disputes and the UN. Bratislava: Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 1970;
6. Inside UNSCOM: The Inspector. Transcript of interview with Charles Duelfer, Deputy Chairman of the UN Special Commission to Iraq.;
7. Iraq Bars UN Inspection Teams From Searching For Weapons. Copyright 1998. The Associated Press.;
8. Malt Bill G. Parade of the Dead Babies. Times. August 7, 1998;
9. Nelan Bruce W. Selling the War Badly. Times, March 2, 1998;
10. Osmanczyk Edmund Jan. The Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Relations. 2nd ed. New York: Taylor and Francis, 1990;
11. Peiser A., Serber M. U.S. History and Government. New York: Asmo School Publications, Inc., 1992;
12. Ritter Leaves Baghdad After Weapons Inspections. CNN News Release. March 10, 1998;
13. Saddam Hussein Freezes co-operation with UN inspectors. CNN News Release. August 5, 1998;
14. Scott Ritter Testifies In Senate. CNN News Release. September 4, 1998;
15. The UN Charter;
16. The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: Field Enterprises, Inc.
17. U.S. Reacts Sternly to Iraq's Rebuff of Inspectors. CNN News Release, December 9, 1998;
18. U.S., Britain Bombard Iraq. CNN News Release, December 16, 1998;
19. United Nations Iraq-Kuwait observation mission;
20. Wedeman Ben "Iraqis protest, but against what?";
21. Western Forces Pound Baghdad in Second, "Stronger" Assault. CNN News Release, December 17, 1998;
Appendix A
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and
to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and
to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples,
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.
Appendix B
The specialized agencies
" The International Labour Organization (ILO) formulates policies and programs to improve working conditions and employment opportunities, and defines international labour standards as guidelines for Governments;
" The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity and food security, and to better the conditions of rural populations;
" The UN Educational, Scientific