As tattooing and piercing become increasingly common however, some people are resorting5 to more extreme methods of body modification to stand out from the crowd. "Body branding"6, for example, is a dramatic (and dangerous) practice which is gaining in popularity. It involves searing the skin with red-hot metal, in some shape or pattern, to leave a permanent scar.
Implanting is another extreme way in which people alter7 their body's appearance . Somewhat similar to body piercing, it involves the painful insertion of metal objects under the skin. One example of implanting is the insertion of horn shaped objects under the skin of the forehead, giving a "devil-like" appearance.
1 to decline - зменшувати 2 forearm - передпліччя
3 to ward off - відвертати 4 outcast - вигнанець
5 to resort - звертатися 6 body brand - тавро
7 to alter - міняти, змінювати
6.2. Прочитайте та перекажіть текст.
1. Unusual deductive abilities of a famous Edinburgh surgeon.
2. The influence of Joseph Bell on a young A. Conan Doyle.
3. Dr Bell's help to police.
4. The way to change our world.
A famous Edinburgh surgeon; unusual deductive abilities; observe; rapid observation; means of living; hand in hand with; complicated crimes; the character; a scientific detective; popularized his ideas; the world of boredom; adventure; the power of observation; keep our eyes open.
Did Sherlock Holmes Exist?
One evening, about the turn of the last century, several guests sat around a dinner table discussing famous murders and unsolved crimes. One of the guests, Dr Joseph Bell, a famous Edinburgh surgeon and university professor, surprised the others with his unusual deductive abilities.
"The trouble with most people", he said, "is that they see, but do not observe. Any really good detective ought to be able to tell, before a stranger has sat down, his occupation, habits, and past history through rapid observation and deduction. Glance at a man and you find his nationality written on his face, his means of living on his hands, and the rest of the story in his gait1, manners, tattoo marks, and clothes".
One of the guests remarked, "Why, Dr Bell might almost be Sherlock Hol-mes". "My dear sir, I am Sherlock Holmes", Dr Bell said. Dr Bell was not joking. He was, indeed, the original Sherlock Holmes, the prototype for the famous Conan Doyle's creation. As you might know, Arthur Conan Doyle studied to be a doctor at the University of Edinburgh. While at University, Doyle was greatly influenced by Joseph Bell, one of his professors.
Dr Bell was famous for his keen2 powers of observation3 and deduction. He could diagnose4 a patient's disease just by observing him.
Dr Bell's lectures always filled the hall. The students admired him and thought him a magician. Bell never failed to surprise them.
Dr Bell's detecting genius was known to the police. He worked hand in hand with Sir Henry Littlejohn, Edinburgh police surgeon, and helped to solve several complicated crimes. When Arthur Conan Doyle decided to write his first detective story he remembered Dr Bell. He called him Sherlock Holmes.
"It is most certainly to you that I owe Sherlock Holmes". A. Conan Doyle wrote to Dr Bell in May, 1892. Thirty-two years later Doyle publicly admitted that he had based the character of Holmes on Joseph Bell. "I used and amplified his methods when I tried to build up a scientific detective", he wrote.
Dr Bell liked A. Conan Doyle's detective stories that popularized his ideas. In Bell's opinion, every man can change the world of boredom into the world of excitement and adventure by developing the power of observation. Like Sherlock Holmes, we will be able to detect from a roan's hat that his wife does not love him, from a man's cane that he is afraid of being murdered, from a man's pipe that he is left-handed and careless.
There may be much more in our life if we keep our eyes open.
1 gait [ ] - хода
2 keen ] - загострений, гострий
3 powers of observation - спостережливість
4 to diagnose [ ] - ставити діагноз
7.2. Прочитайте та перекажіть текст.
1. Guess who this man is.
2. The childhood of Steven Spielberg.
3. The films he made.
4. The source of his inspiration.
5. Making of "Jaws".
6. "Jurassic Park" is not a science fiction, it's a scientific possibility.
Fight with sharks; all-powerful wizard; magician; scream with laughter; shiver with horror; early childhood; shooting; he won a contest; local cinema; the biggest hit; great projects; financially successful; source of inspiration; to spend time; reputation; was afraid of everything; remains terrified; audience; ocean floor; consulted many specialists; one of the most expensive films; in the name of science.
Guess who he is? - He is dinosaurs' father and a great friend of Roger Rabbit and E.T. He knows where Neverland is and can fight with sharks and poltergeist. - Superman? - Wrong! He is Steven Spielberg.
He seems to be the all-powerful wizard and a cinematic magician to us. His films make us scream with laughter or shiver with horror. The son of a computer scientist and a gifted pianist, Spielberg spent his early childhood in New Jersey and, later, Arizona. He was 11 when he first got his dad's 8-millimetre camera and began shooting short flicks2&bout flying saucers and World War II battles. At the age of 13 he won a contest with his 40-minute film "Escape to Nowhere". At the age of 16 he produced the movie "Firelight" and it was shown at the local cinema.
But a real success came in 1975, when Spielberg created "Jaws". That little fish tale became the biggest hit of its time. This movie opened up the doors for Spielberg to work on many more great projects. And he went on to shake Hollywood with "Close Encounters", "Raiders of the Lost Ark", "E.T." and "Jurassic Park".
Altogether his 18 films made him one of the most financially successful filmmakers.
But his talents aren't limited to the movie set. Spielberg has also proved to be one of Hollywood's most nimble3 entrepreneurs. His business empire includes video games, toys and even restaurants.
But what is his source of inspiration? He draws itfrom his 7 children, aged 3 to 24 years, who live with him (two of them are adopted4). Spielberg likes to spend time with his children. His house resembles a large playground - he keeps there 2 parrots, several snakes and a fish tank.
Ask him where he gets his ideas and he shrugs5. "The process for me is mostly intuitive", he says. "There are movies that I feel that I need to make, for a variety of reasons: for personal reasons, for reasons that I want to have fun, that the subject matter is cool, that I think my kids will like it".
As a director, Spielberg has a reputation for coaxing6 the best performances out of everyone from small