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The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine - Реферат

developing (would "wasting time on" be a better phrase?) proprietary Micro Channel PS/2 system, clone vendors ALR and Compaq wrestled away control of the x86 architecture and introduced the first 386-based systems, the Access 386 and Deskpro 386. Both systems maintained backward compatibility with the 286-based AT.
Compaq's Deskpro 386 had a further performance innovation in its Flex bus architecture. Compaq split the x86 external bus into two separate buses: a high-speed local bus to support memory chips fast enough for the 16-MHz 386, and a slower I/O bus that supported existing expansion cards.
" Apple Macintosh II
When you first looked at the Macintosh II, you may have said, "But it looks just like a PC. "You would have been right. Apple decided it was wiser to give users a case they could open so they could upgrade it themselves. The monitor in its 68020-powered machine was a separate unit that typically sat on top of the CPU case.
" Next Nextstation
UNIX had never been easy to use , and only now, 10 years later, are we getting back to that level. Unfortunately, Steve Job's cube never developed the software base it needed for long-term survival. Nonetheless, it survived as an inspiration for future workstations.
Priced at less than $10,000, the elegant Nextstation came with a 25-MHz 68030 CPU, a 68882 FPU, 8 MB of RAM, and the first commercial magneto-optical drive (256-MB capacity). It also had a built-in DSP (digital signal processor). The programming language was object-oriented C, and the OS was a version of UNIX, sugarcoated with a consistent GUI that rivaled Apple`s.
" NEC UltraLite
Necks UltraLite is the portable that put subnotebook into the lexicon. Like Radio Shack's TRS-80 Model 100, the UltraLite was a 4-pounder ahead of its time. Unlike the Model 100, it was expensive (starting price, $2999), but it could run MS-DOS. (The burden of running Windows wasn't yet thrust upon its shoulders.)
Fans liked the 4.4-pound UltraLite for its trim size and portability, but it really needed one of today's tiny hard drives. It used battery-backed DRAM (1 MB, expandable to 2 MB) for storage, with ROM-based Traveling Software's LapLink to move stored data to a desk top PC.
Foreshadowing PCMCIA, the UltraLite had a socket that accepted credit-card-size ROM cards holding popular applications like WordPerfect or Lotus 1-2-3, or a battery-backed 256-KB RAM card.
* Sun SparcStation 1
It wasn't the first RISK workstation, nor even the first Sun system to use Sun's new SPARC chip. But the SparcStation 1 set a new standard for price/performance, churning out 12.5 MIPS at a starting price of only $8995 - about what you might spend for a fully configured Macintosh. Sun sold lots of systems and made the words SparcStation and workstation synonymous in many peoples minds.
The SparcStation 1 also introduced S-Bus, Sun's proprietary 32-bit synchronous bus, which ran at the same 20-MHz speed as the CPU.
" IBM RS/6000
Sometimes, when IBM decides to do something, it does it right.(Other times... Well, remember the PC jr.?)The RS/6000 allowed IBM to enter the workstation market. The RS/6000`s RISK processor chip set (RIOS) racked up speed records and introduced many to term suprscalar. But its price was more than competitive. IBM pushed third-party software support, and as a result, many desktop publishing, CAD, and scientific applications ported to the RS/6000, running under AIX, IBM's UNIX.
A shrunken version of the multichip RS/6000 architecture serves as the basis for the single-chip PowerPC, the non-x86-compatible processor with the best chance of competing with Intel.
* Apple Power Macintosh
Not many companies have made the transition from CISC to RISK this well. The Power Macintosh represents Apple`s well-planned and successful leap to bridge two disparate hardware platforms. Older Macs run Motorola's 680x0 CISK line, which is running out of steam; the Power Macs run existing 680x0-based applications yet provide Power PC performance, a combination that sold over a million systems in a year.
* IBM ThinkPad 701C
It is not often anymore that a new computer inspires gee-whiz sentiment, but IBM's Butterfly subnotebook does, with its marvelous expanding keyboard. The 701C`s two-part keyboard solves the last major piece in the puzzle of building of usable subnotebook: how to provide comfortable touch-typing.(OK, so the floppy drive is sill external.)
With a full-size keyboard and a 10.4-inch screen, the 4.5-pound 701C compares favorably with full-size notebooks. Battery life is good, too.
he government and the authorities had paid serious attention to the development of the computer industry right after the Second World War. The leading bodies considered this task to be one of the principal for the national economy.
Up to the beginning of the 1950s there were only small productive capacities which specialized in the producing accounting and account-perforating (punching) machines. The electronic numerical computer engineering was only arising and the productive capacities for it were close to the naught.
The first serious steps in the development of production base were made initially in the late 1950s when the work on creating the first industry samples of the electronic counting machines was finished and there were created M-20, "Ural-1", "Minsk-1", which together with their semi-conductor successors (M-220, "Ural-11-14", "Minsk-22" and "Minsk-32") created in the 1960s were the main ones in the USSR until the computers of the third generationwere put into the serial production, that is until the early 1970s.
In the 1960s the science-research and assembling base was enlarged. As the result of this measures, all researches connected with creating and putting into the serial production of semi-conductor electronic computing machines were almost finished. That allowed to stop the production of the first generation machines beginning from the 1964.
Next decades the whole branch of the computer engineering had been created. The important steps were undertaken to widen the productive capacities for the 3d generation machines.
ESM was conceived by S.A.Lebedev to be a model of a Big Electronic Computing Machine (BESM). At first it was called the Model of the Big Electronic Computing Machine, but ,later, in the process of its creation there appeared the evident expediency of transforming it in a small computer. For that reason there were added: the impute-output devices, magnetic drum storage, the register capacity was enhanced; and the word "Model" was changed for "Malaya" (Small).
S.A.Lebedev was proposed to head the Institute of Energetics in Kiev. After a year; when the Institute of was divided into two departments: the electronical one and the department of heat-and-power engineering, Lebedev became the director of the first one. He also added his laboratory of analogue computation to the already existing ones of the electronical type. At once he began to work on computer science instead of the usual, routine researches in the field of engineering means of stabilization and structures of automated devices. Lebedev was awarded the State Prize of the USSR. Since autumn 1948 Lebedev directed his laboratory towards creating the MESM. The most difficult part of the work was the practical creation of MESM. It might be only the many-sided experience of the researches that allowed