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Edgar Allan Poe (Едгар Алан По) - Реферат

abilities in the Philadelphia paper Alexander's Weekly (Express) Messenger, inviting submissions of ciphers, which he proceeded to solve.[91] In July 1841, Poe had published an essay called "A Few Words on Secret Writing" in Graham's Magazine. Realizing the public interest in the topic, he wrote "The Gold-Bug" incorporating ciphers as part of the story.[92] Poe's success in cryptography relied not so much on his knowledge of that field (his method was limited to the simple substitution cryptogram), as on his knowledge of the magazine and newspaper culture. His keen analytical abilities, which were so evident in his detective stories, allowed him to see that the general public was largely ignorant of the methods by which a simple substitution cryptogram can be solved, and he used this to his advantage.[91] The sensation Poe created with his cryptography stunt played a major role in popularizing cryptograms in newspapers and magazines.[93]
Poe had an influence on cryptography beyond increasing public interest in his lifetime. William Friedman, America's foremost cryptologist, was heavily influenced by Poe.[94] Friedman's initial interest in cryptography came from reading "The Gold-Bug" as a child - interest he later put to use in deciphering Japan's PURPLE code during World War II.[95]
Poe Toaster
Main article: Poe Toaster
Adding to the mystery surrounding Poe's death, an unknown visitor affectionately referred to as the "Poe Toaster" has paid homage to Poe's grave every year since 1949. As the tradition has been carried on for over 50 years, it is likely that the "Poe Toaster" is actually several individuals; however, the tribute is always the same. Every January 19, in the early hours of the morning, the man makes a toast of cognac to Poe's original grave marker and leaves three roses. Members of the Edgar Allan Poe Society in Baltimore have helped in protecting this tradition for decades. On August 15, 2007, Sam Porpora, a former historian at the Westminster Church in Baltimore where Poe is buried, claimed that he had started the tradition in the 1960s. The claim that the tradition began in 1949, he said, was a hoax in order to raise money and enhance the profile of the church. His story has not been confirmed,[96] and some details he has given to the press have been pointed out as factually inaccurate.[97]
Poe as a character
Main articles: Edgar Allan Poe in popular culture and Edgar Allan Poe in television and film
The historical Edgar Allan Poe has appeared as a fictionalized character, often representing the "mad genius" or "tormented artist" and exploiting his personal struggles.[98] Many such depictions also blend in with characters from his stories, suggesting Poe and his characters share identities.[99] Often, fictional depictions of Poe utilize his mystery-solving skills in such novels as The Poe Shadow by Matthew Pearl.[100]
Preserved homes, landmarks, and museums
The Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site in Philadelphia is one of several preserved former residences of Poe.
No childhood home of Poe is still standing, including the Allan family's Moldavia estate. However, the oldest standing home in Richmond, the Old Stone House, is in use as the Edgar Allan Poe Museum, though Poe never lived there. The collection includes many items Poe used during his time with the Allan family and also features several rare first printings of Poe works. The dorm room Poe is believed to have used while studying at the University of Virginia in 1826 is preserved and available for visits. Its upkeep is now overseen by a group of students and staff known as the Raven Society.[101]
The earliest surviving home in which Poe lived is in Baltimore, preserved as the Edgar Allan Poe House and Museum. Poe is believed to have lived in the home at the age of 23 when he first lived with Maria Clemm and Virginia (as well as his grandmother and possibly his brother William Henry Leonard Poe). It is open to the public and is also the home of the Edgar Allan Poe Society. Of the several homes that Poe, his wife Virginia, and his mother-in-law Maria rented in Philadelphia, only the last house has survived. The Spring Garden home, where the author lived in 1843-44, is today preserved by the National Park Service as the Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site. Poe's final home is preserved as the Poe Cottage in the Bronx, New York.[51][102]
Other Poe landmarks include a building in the Upper West Side where Poe temporarily lived when he first moved to New York. A plaque suggests that Poe wrote "The Raven" here. In Boston, a plaque hangs near the building where Poe was born once stood. Believed to have been located at 62 Carver Street (now Charles Street), the plaque is possibly in an incorrect location.[103][104] The bar in which legend says Poe was last seen drinking before his death still stands in Fells Point in Baltimore, Maryland. Thoughthe name has changed and it is now known as The Horse You Came In On, local lore insists that a ghost they call "Edgar" haunts the rooms above.[105]
Selected list of works
Main article: Bibliography of Edgar Allan Poe
" "Berenice"
" "The Black Cat"
" "The Cask of Amontillado"
" "The Fall of the House of Usher"
" "The Gold-Bug"
" "Hop-Frog"
" "Ligeia"
" "The Man of the Crowd"
" "The Masque of the Red Death"
" "The Murders in the Rue Morgue"
" "The Pit and the Pendulum"
" "The Purloined Letter"
" "The Tell-Tale Heart"
" "A Dream Within A Dream"
" "Annabel Lee"
" "The Bells"
" "The City in the Sea"
" "The Conqueror Worm"
" "Eldorado"
" "The Haunted Palace"
" "Lenore"
" "The Raven"
" "Ulalume"
Other Works
" The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket - Poe's only complete novel
" "The Philosophy of Composition" - Essay
" Eureka - Essay
" "The Balloon-Hoax" - A journalistic hoax printed as a true story
See also
Edgar Allan Poe Portal
" Edgar Allan Poe and music
" USS E.A. Poe (IX-103)
" List of coupled cousins
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2. ^ a b Meyers, 138
3. ^ Meyers, 256
4. ^ a b Allen, Hervey. "Introduction". The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1927.
5. ^ a b Canada, Mark, ed. "Edgar Allan Poe Chronology". Canada's America. 1997. Retrieved on 3 June 2007.
6. ^ Meyers, 8
7. ^ Quinn, 61
8. ^ a b Meyers, 9
9. ^ Silverman, 16-18
10. ^ Silverman, 27-28
11. ^ Silverman, 29-30
12. ^ Meyers, 21-22
13. ^ Silverman, 32-34
14. ^ Meyers, 32
15. ^ Silverman, 41
16. ^ Cornelius, Kay. "Biography of Edgar Allan Poe", Bloom's BioCritiques: Edgar Allan Poe, Ed. Harold Bloom, Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002. p. 13 ISBN 0791061736
17. ^ Meyers, 32
18. ^ Meyers, 33-34
19. ^ Meyers, 35
20. ^ Silverman, 43-47
21. ^ Meyers, 38
22. ^ Cornelius, Kay. "Biography of Edgar Allan Poe", Bloom's BioCritiques: Edgar Allan Poe, Ed. Harold Bloom, Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002. pp. 13-14 ISBN 0791061736
23. ^ Krutch, 32
24. ^ Cornelius, Kay. "Biography of Edgar Allan Poe", Bloom's BioCritiques: Edgar Allan Poe, Ed. Harold Bloom, Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002. p. 14 ISBN 0791061736
25. ^