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Marie Curie (Марія Кюрі) - Реферат

has been speculated that he may previously have been weakened by prolonged radiation exposure, it has not been proven that this was the cause of the accident. Marie was devastated by her husband's death and may subsequently have had an affair with physicist Paul Langevin [citation needed] - a married man who had left his wife - which resulted in a press scandal, exploited by her academic opponents. Despite her fame as a scientist working for France, the public's attitude to the scandal tended toward xenophobia.
Langevin's grandson Michel Langevin later married Sk?odowska-Curie's granddaughter, H?l?ne Joliot.
During World War I, Sk?odowska-Curie pushed for the use of mobile radiography units, which came to be popularly known as "Little Curies" (petites Curies), for the treatment of wounded soldiers. These units were powered using tubes of radium emanation, a colorless, radioactive gas given off by radium, later identified as radon. Sk?odowska-Curie personally provided the tubes, derived from the radium she purified. Also, promptly after the war started, she donated her and her husband's gold Nobel Prize medals for the war effort.
After World War I, in 1921 and again in 1929, Sk?odowska-Curie toured the United States, where she was welcomed triumphantly, to raise funds for research on radium. These distractions from her scientific labours, and the attendant publicity, caused her much discomfort but provided many resources for her work. Her second American tour succeeded in equipping the Warsaw Radium Institute, founded in 1925 with her sister Bronis?awa as director.
In her later years, Sk?odowska-Curie headed the Pasteur Institute and a radioactivity laboratory created for her by the University of Paris.
Polish 20,000-z?oty banknote with likeness of Maria Sk?odowska-Curie.
500-French franc banknote with Marie Curie and (background) her husband and 1903 fellow-Nobel-laureate, Pierre Curie.
Plaque commemorating Maria Sk?odowska-Curie's first scientific work (1890-91), in a laboratory at Krakowskie Przedmie?cie 66, Warsaw.
Her death near Sallanches, Savoy, in 1934 was from aplastic anemia, almost certainly due to exposure to radiation, as the damaging effects of ionising radiation were not yet known, and much of her work had been carried out in a shed with no safety measures. She had carried test tubes containing radioactive isotopes in her pocket and stored them in her desk drawer, remarking on the pretty blue-green light the substances gave off in the dark.
She was interred at the cemetery in Sceaux, where Pierre lay, but sixty years later, in 1995, in honor of their work, the remains of both were transferred to the Panth?on in Paris.
The Curies' elder daughter, Ir?ne Joliot-Curie, won a Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1935 for discovering that aluminium could be radioactive and emit neutrons when bombarded with alpha rays. The younger daughter, ?ve Curie, wrote the biography, Madame Curie, after her mother's death.
" Nobel Prize for Physics (1903)
" Davy Medal (1903)
" Matteucci Medal (1904)
" Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1911)
As one of the most famous female scientists to date, Marie Curie has been an icon in the scientific world and has inspired many tributes and recognitions. In 1995, she was the first and only woman laid to rest under the famous dome of the Panth?on, in Paris, on her own merits, alongside her husband. The curie (symbol Ci), a unit of radioactivity, is named in their honour, as is the element with atomic number 96 - curium.
Sk?odowska-Curie's likeness appeared on the Polish late-1980s inflationary 20,000-z?oty banknote. Her likeness also appeared on stamps and coins, and on the last French 500-franc note, with her husband, before the franc was made obsolete by the euro.
Greer Garson and Walter Pidgeon starred in the 1943 U.S. Oscar-nominated film, Madame Curie, based on her life. "Marie Curie" is also the name of a character in a 1988 comedy, Young Einstein, by Yahoo Serious.
Three radioactive minerals are named after the Curies: curite, sklodowskite, and cuprosklodowskite.
Pierre and Marie Curie University, the largest science, technology and medicine university in France, and successor institution to the faculty of science at the University of Paris, where she taught, is named in honour of her and Pierre. The university is home to the laboratory where they discovered radium.
Another school named for her, Marie Curie M.S. 158, in Bayside, New York, specializes in science and technology as does Curie Metropolitan High School, located in the community area of Archer Heights on Chicago's Southwest Side. It has a Technical, Performing Arts and IB program.
In 2007, the Pierre Curie Paris M?tro station was renamed the "Pierre et Marie Curie" station.
The Maria Sk?odowska-Curie Medallion, a stained-glass panel created by Jozef C. Mazur, may be found at the University at Buffalo Polish Room.
See also
At the First Solvay Conference (1911), Sk?odowska-Curie (seated, 2nd from right), the only woman present, confers with Henri Poincar?. Standing, 4th from right, is Ernest Rutherford; 2nd from right, Albert Einstein; at far right, Paul Langevin.
" Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University in Lublin
" Maria Sk?odowska-Curie Institute of Oncology in Warsaw
" List of people on stamps of Ireland
" Marie Curie Cancer Care
" Curie
Further reading
" Naomi Pasachoff, Marie Curie and the Science of Radioactivity, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996.
" Curie, Eve. Madame Curie: A Biography. ISBN 0-306-81038-7.
" Quinn, Susan. Marie Curie: A Life. ISBN 0-201-88794-0.
" Goldsmith, Barbara. Obsessive Genius: The Inner World of Marie Curie. ISBN 0-393-05137-4.
" Olov Enquist, Per. The Book about Blanche and Marie. ISBN 1-58567-668-3. a fictionalized account of relationships among Curie, JM Charcot and Blanche Wittman
1. ^ Reid, Robert William (1974). Marie Curie. London: Collins, page 19. ISBN 0-00-211539-5. "Unusually at such an early age, she became what T. H. Huxley had just invented a word for: agnostic."
2. ^ Marie Curie. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Marie Curie
Wikiquote has acollection of quotations related to:
Marie Curie
" [1]Two biographies of Sk?odowska-Curie, one brief and one comprehensive.
" Out of the Shadows-A study of women physicists
" Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium Chronology from nobelprize.org
" 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics and 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - Nobel committee page; presentation speech, her award lecture etc.
" The official web page of Maria Curie Sk?odowska University in Lublin, Poland in English.
" Detailed Biography at Science in Poland website; with quotes, photographs, links etc.
" Long biography at American Institute of Physics website (site also has a short version for kids entitled "Her story in brief!")
" Maria Sk?odowska-Curie Museum in Warsaw
" Marie Curie: A Nobel Prize Pioneer at the Panth?on
" European Marie Curie Fellowships
" Marie Curie Fellowship Association
" Marie Curie Cancer Care, UK
" Marie Sklodowska Curie: Her Life as a Media Compendium
" Annotated bibliography of Marie Curie from the Alsos Digital Library