... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Texas (State of Texas) - Реферат

Texas (State of Texas) - Реферат

pictures of the city show only the main downtown area. Houston has a system of tunnels and skywalks linking buildings in downtown. The tunnel system also includes shops, restaurants, and convenience stores.
Images shown below are the eight tallest buildings in Texas.
1. JPMorgan Chase Tower
2. Wells Fargo Bank Plaza
3. Bank of America Plaza
4. Williams Tower
5. Renaissance Tower
6. Comerica Bank Tower
7. Bank of America Center
8. Heritage Plaza
See also: Architecture of Houston
Main article: Transportation in Texas
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT, pronounced "tex-dot") is a governmental agency that "provide[s] safe, effective, and efficient movement of people and goods" throughout the state. Though the public face of the agency is generally associated with maintenance of the state's immense highway system, the agency is also responsible for aviation in the state and overseeing public transportation systems.
Main article: Texas state highways
I-10 and I-45 interchange in Houston
Texas freeways have been heavily traveled since the 1948 opening of the Gulf Freeway in Houston, and they are often under construction to meet the demands of continuing growth. As of 2005, there were 79,535 miles (127,999 km) of public highway in Texas (up from 71,000 in 1984). Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) planners have sought ways to reduce rush hour congestion, primarily through high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes for vans and carpools. The "Texas T"-an innovation originally introduced in Houston-is a ramp design that allows vehicles in the HOV lane, which is usually the center lane, to exit directly to transit centers or to enter the freeway directly into the HOV lane without crossing multiple lanes of traffic. Timed freeway entrances, which regulate the addition of cars to the freeway, are also common. Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, and El Paso have extensive networks of freeway cameras linked to transit control centers to monitor and study traffic.
One characteristic of Texas's freeways is thefrontage road, found even in the most remote areas. Frontage roads provide access to the freeway from businesses alongside, such as gas stations and retail stores. Alongside most freeways, together with the frontage roads are two to four lanes in each direction parallel to the freeway permitting easy access to individual city streets. New landscaping projects and a longstanding ban on new billboards are ways Houston has tried to control the potential side effects of this convenience road.
Another common characteristic found near Texas overpasses are the Texas U-turns which is a lane allowing cars traveling on one side of a one-way frontage road to U-turn into the opposite frontage road (typically crossing over or under a freeway or expressway) without being stopped by traffic lights or crossing the highway traffic at-grade.
In the western part of the state, both I-10 and I-20 have a speed limit of 80 MPH, the highest in the nation.
Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport
The Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, located nearly equidistant from downtown Dallas and downtown Fort Worth, is the largest airport in the state, the second largest in the United States, and fourth largest in the world.[86] In terms of traffic, DFW is the busiest in the state, third busiest in the United States, and sixth busiest in the world.[citation needed] The airport serves 135 domestic destinations and 37 international. DFW is the largest and main hub for American Airlines (900 daily departures), the world's largest in terms of total passengers-miles transported[87] and passenger fleet size,[88].
Texas's second-largest air facility is Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH), which is the ninth-busiest in the United States for total passengers, and nineteenth-busiest worldwide. Houston is the headquarters of Continental Airlines, and is the airline's largest hub, with over 750 daily departures (most operated by Continental). A long list of cities within Texas, as well as international destinations are served directly from this airport; with 30 destinations in Mexico, IAH offers service to more Mexican destinations than any other U.S. airport. IAH currently ranks second among U.S. airports with scheduled non-stop domestic and international service (221 destinations), trailing only Atlanta Hartsfield with 250 destinations.
Southwest Airlines, the largest domestic carrier in the United States began its operations at Dallas Love Field.[89] and is still headquartered in Dallas, Texas. It is the largest airline in the United States by number of passengers carried domestically per year and the second largest airline in the world by number of passengers carried.[90]
See also: List of airports in Texas
Passenger rail transportation
METRORail in Houston
Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART), the Dallas area public transportation authority, began operating the first light rail system in the Southwest United States in 1996 and continues to expand its coverage. The DART lightrail currently covers 48 miles (77 km) of track. DART currently has three lines (Blue, Green, and Red) with 35 stations in multiple cities including Dallas, Richardson, Plano, and Garland. Current construction will add an additional 46.2 miles of rail with 28 new stations. The DART light rail system remained the only one in Texas until METRORail opened in Houston in 2004.
The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (METRO) operates light rail service in Harris County, which includes Houston. METRO's light rail in Houston started on January 1, 2004. Currently the track runs about 8 miles (13 km) from Downtown Houston to the Texas Medical Center and Reliant Park. METRO also operates bus service in Harris County and to two cities in Fort Bend County. METRO is in the process of adding over 30 more miles of light rail, as well as 28 miles (45 km) of commuter rail by the year 2015.
Currently, intercity passenger rail service in Texas is limited from both network and frequency viewpoint, with just three Amtrak trains serving the state: the daily Texas Eagle (Chicago-San Antonio), the tri-weekly Sunset Limited (New Orleans-Los Angeles), and the daily Heartland Flyer (Fort Worth-Oklahoma City).
Healthcare and medicine
Aerial of Texas Medical Center in Houston
Texas is home to three of the world's elite research medical centers: