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Texas (State of Texas) - Реферат

oil, and agriculture as its main industries. The sprawling 320,000 deeded acre (1,200 km?) La Escalera Ranch, located 20 miles (32 km) south of Fort Stockton, Texas, is one of the largest cattle ranches in the Southwestern United States. Cattle ranching was never Texas's chief industry - before the oil boom back to the period of the first Anglo settlers, the chief industry was cotton farming. After World War II, Texas became increasingly industrialized. Its economy today relies largely on information technology, oil and natural gas, fuel processing, electric power, agriculture, and manufacturing. Much economic activity in Texas is regional- for example, the timber industry is important in East Texas's economy but a non-factor elsewhere, while Houston, the state's largest urban economic enclave stands at the center of the petrochemical, biomedical research trades, and aerospace (particularly NASA). Meanwhile, Dallas houses the state's predominant defense manufacturing interests and the expansive information technology labor market.
Port of Houston.
Texas has the second highest number of Fortune 500 company headquarters, fifty-six.[75] This has been attributed to both the growth in population in Texas and the rise of oil prices in 2005, which resulted in the growth in revenues of many Texas oil drilling and processing companies.
In 2006, for the fifth year in a row, Texas led the nation in export revenues. Texas exports for 2006 totaled $150.8 billion, which is $22.1 billion more than 2005 and represents a 17.2 percent increase. In 2002, the Port of Houston was 6th among the top sea ports in the world in terms of total cargovolume;[76] Air Cargo World rated Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport as "the best air cargo airport in the world".[77]
Texans pride their state's history, but they also seek new social and technological developments. Austin and its surrounding area is often nicknamed "Silicon Hills". Dell's headquarters is located in the city's suburb, Round Rock. Dallas is the birthplace of the integrated circuit. North Dallas along with surrounding suburbs has been called the "Silicon Prairie" for the area's high concentration of Information Technology companies such as Texas Instruments and EDS. In addition, Compaq, at one time one of the world's largest computer companies, was based in Houston. Hewlett-Packard currently employs more employees in Houston, than anywhere else in the world.
Houston is a global leader in the energy industry. Since 2003, Texas state officials have created various initiatives like the Texas Enterprise Fund and the Texas Emerging Technology Fundto develop the economy of Texas. Texas is a leader in alternative energy sources, producing the most wind power of any state,[78] as well as small solar powered efforts and the experimental installation of wave-powered generators.
Texas has a large tourism industry. The state tourism slogan is "Texas: It's like a whole other country", a nod to Texas's diversity and history. Tourists might enjoy San Antonio and El Paso's hispanic culture, or Fort Worth western attractions. Corpus Christi and Padre Island are some of the popular Texas resort areas located on the Gulf of Mexico.
Texas is a top filmmaking state. Austin is now one of the leading filmmaking locations in the country. During 1995-2004, more than $2.75 billion has been spent in Texas for film and television production. The Texas Film Commission was founded for free services to filmmakers, from location research to traveling.[79] Also many Hollywood studios are relocating parts of their production divisions to the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex.[79]
See also: List of military installations in Texas
Main article: Culture of Texas
Big Tex has presided over every Texas State Fair since 1952
Immigration has made the culture of Texas become a melting pot of different cultures around the world. Texas's diverse and international culture is partly due to its academic institutions and strong biomedical, energy, manufacturing and aerospace industries.
Many popular events are held in Texas celebrating cultures of Texans. The annual Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo is held over 20 days from late February through early March and is the largest rodeo in the world. The event begins with trail rides that originate from several points throughout the state, all of which convene at Reliant Park for a barbecue cook-off. The rodeo includes typical rodeo events, as well as concert performances from major artists and carnival rides. The World's first rodeo was held in Pecos, Texas on 4 July 1883. The Southwestern Livestock Show and Rodeo in Fort Worth, Texas lasts three weeks in late January and early February. It has many traditional rodeos, but also a cowboy rodeo, and a Mexican rodeo in recent years that each have a large fan base. The State Fair of Texas is held in Dallas, Texas each year at Fair Park.
Texas has a vibrant live music scene in Austin boasting more music venues per capita than any other U.S. city, befitting the city's official slogan as The Live Music Capital of the World. Austin's music revolves around the nightclubs on 6th Street and an annual film, music, and multimedia festival known as South by Southwest. The longest-running concert music program on American television, Austin City Limits, is videotaped on The University of Texas at Austin campus or in Zilker Park. Austin City Limits and Waterloo Records run the Austin City Limits Music Festival, an annual music and art festival held at Zilker Park.
Over the past couple of decades, San Antonio evolved into the "Nashville of Tejano music." The Tejano Music Awards have provided a forum to create greater awareness and appreciation for Tejano music and culture.
See also: List of people from Texas, List of Texas symbols, Don't Mess with Texas, and Gone to Texas
Arts and theatre
Hobby Center for the Performing Arts in Houston
Known for the vibrancy of its visual and performing arts, the Houston Theatre District-a 17-block area in the heart of Downtown Houston-is ranked second in the country in the number of theatre seats in a concentrated downtown area with 12,948 seats for live performances and 1,480 movie seats.[80]
Houston is also one of only five American cities with permanent professional resident companies in all of the major performing arts disciplines (the Houston Grand Opera, the Houston Symphony Orchestra, the Houston Ballet, and The Alley Theatre).[81] Houston, Texas is widely recognized as the nation's third most important city for contemporary visual arts.