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Texas (State of Texas) - Реферат

immigrants from Europe survives in the names of towns, styles of architecture, genres of music, and varieties of cuisine. Lavaca County is predominantly Czech.
More than one-third of Texas residents are of Hispanic origin and may be of any racial group. Some are recent arrivals from Latin America, while others, known as Tejanos in English, have ancestors who have lived in Texas for several generations. Hispanics dominate south, south-central, and west Texas and are a significant part of the residents in San Antonio, Houston, and Dallas.
Illegal immigrants-primarily from far southern Mexico and Central America- who look for work in Texas also contribute to the state's growth. The influx of illegal immigration is partially responsible for Texas having a population younger than the U.S. average.
Recently, the Asian population in Texas has grown-primarily in Houston and Dallas. People with ancestry from Cambodia, India, Pakistan, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, Korea, and Japan make up the largest Asian-American groups in Texas.
Texas a part of the strong socially conservativeEvangelical Protestant, Bible Belt. Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas is home to three major evangelical seminaries, Dallas Theological Seminary, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary and Criswell College. The city has several of America's largest megachurches including the Potter's House pastored by T.D Jakes. Houston is home to the largest church in the nation, Lakewood Church, which is pastored by Joel Osteen. Lubbock, Texas has the most churches per capita in the nation.[61]
The religious demographics of Texas are:[62]
" Christian - 92%
o Protestant - 66%
" Baptist - 32%
" Methodist - 9%
" Pentecostal - 3%
" Lutheran - 2%
" Presbyterian - 2%
" Episcopalian - 2%
" Church of Christ - 2%
" Other Protestant - 14%
o Roman Catholic - 23%
o Latter-day Saint - 1%[63]
o Other Christian - 2%
" Jewish - 1%
" Other Religions - 2%
" Non-Religious - 5%
Major cities
See also: List of cities in Texas, Population of Texas cities in 2000, and List of Texas metropolitan areas
The largest cities figure prominently in the economy, culture, and heritage of Texas, the American South and Southwest. As of 2000, six incorporated places in Texas had populations greater than 500,000, of which two are global cities: Houston and Dallas.[64] Texas has a total of 25 metropolitan areas, with four having populations over 1 million and two over 5 million.
Texas is the only state in the U.S. to have three cities with populations exceeding 1 million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas; which are also among the 10 largest cities of the United States. Austin and Fort Worth are in the top 20 largest U.S. cities.[65]
San Antonio
rank U.S.
rank City Population
city limits Metro
Population Land Area
square miles (km?) Texas
Region U.S.
1 4 Houston
2,144,491 5,539,949 601.7 sq mi
(1,558 km?) East Texas
2 7 San Antonio
1,296,682 1,942,217 412.1 sq mi
(1,067 km?) South Texas
3 9 Dallas
1,232,940 6,003,967 385.0 sq mi
(997 km?) North Texas
4 16 Austin
709,893 1,513,565 258.4 sq mi
(669 km?) Central Texas
5 18 Fort Worth
653,320 6,003,967 298.9 sq mi
(774 km?) North Texas
6 21 El Paso
609,415 415,810 250.5 sq mi
(649 km?) West Texas
7 49 Arlington
362,805 6,003,967 99.0 sq mi
(257 km?) North Texas
8 63 Corpus Christi
283,474 736,310 460.2 sq mi
(1,192 km?) South Texas
9 69 Plano
250,096 6,003,967 71.6 sq mi
(186 km?) North Texas
10 86 Garland
216,346 6,003,967 57.1 sq mi
(148 km?) North Texas
Government and politics
Main articles: Government of Texas and Politics of Texas
The Texas Constitution-adopted in 1876-is the second-oldest state constitution still in effect. As with many state constitutions, it explicitly provides for the separation of powers and incorporates its bill of rights directly into the text of the constitution (as Article I). The bill of rights is considerably lengthier and more detailed than the federal Bill of Rights, and includes provisions unique to Texas.
Political system
Texas State Capitol
The executive branch consists of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Land Commissioner, Attorney General, Agriculture Commissioner, the three-member Texas Railroad Commission, the State Board of Education, and the Secretary of State. All of these positions are elected by the populace, with the exception of the Secretary of State, who is appointed by the Governor. The Comptroller decides if expected state income is sufficient to cover proposed state budgets. The executive branch also consists of state agencies, and boards and commissions. The Governor commands the state militia and can veto bills passed by the Legislature and call special sessions of the Legislature (this power is exclusive to the Governor and can be exercised as often as desired). The Governor also appoints members of various executive boards and fills judicial vacancies between elections.
The Legislature of Texas is bicameral with The House of Representatives having 150 members and the Senate 31. The speaker, currently Tom Craddick (R-Midland) leads the House, and the Lieutenant Governor (currently Republican David Dewhurst) leads the Senate. The Legislature meets in regular session only once every two years. Only the Governor may call a special session, and may do so as often as desired.
The judicial system of Texas has a reputation as one of the most complex in the United States, with many layers and many overlapping jurisdictions. Texas has two courts of last resort: the Texas Supreme Court, for civil cases, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. Except for some municipal benches, partisan elections selects judges at all levels of the judiciary; the Governor fills vacancies by appointment.
Governor Rick Perry
Protesters at the 6th Annual March to Stop Executions
Republican Rick Perry has served as Governor of Texas since December 2000, when George W. Bush vacated the office to assume the Presidency. Two Republicans represent Texas in the U.S. Senate: Kay Bailey Hutchison (since 1993) and John Cornyn (since 2003). There are 32 congressional districts in Texas, the second-most after California. 19 seats are held by