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Texas (State of Texas) - Реферат

States of America. Near the turn of the 19th century, discovery of oil led to an economic boom in the state. Texas grew rapidly, becoming the second largest state in population 1994, diversifying its economy, with a growingbase in high technology.
The display of the "Six Flags" in Austin, Texas includes the flags of (left to right) Spain, France, Mexico, the Confederate States of America, the Republic of Texas, and the United States of America.
History of Texas
Spanish Texas
French Texas
Mexican Texas
Republic of Texas
State of Texas
Texas boasts that "Six Flags" have flown over its soil: the national flags of Spain, the Fleur-de-lis of France, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America, and the United States of America.[10]
American Indian tribes who once lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Comanche, Cherokee, Kiowa, Tonkawa, Wichita, Hueco and the Karankawa of Galveston. Currently, there are three federally recognized Native American tribes which reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo of Texas.[11]
Main articles: Spanish Texas and Mexican Texas
Alonso ?lvarez de Pineda, creator of the first map of the northern Gulf Coast, made the first documented European citing of Texas in 1519.[12][13] On 6 November 1528, shipwrecked Spanish conquistador ?lvar N??ez Cabeza de Vaca became the first known European in Texas.[14] Texas was immediately claimed by Spain as part of New Spain.[15] but was not settled immediately. In 1685 La Salle established the first European community in Texas, the French colony of Fort Saint Louis.[16] The colony, located along Matagorda Bay, lasted only four years before succumbing to harsh conditions and hostile natives.[17]
Due to the perceived French encroachment, Spain established its first presence in Texas in 1691 constructing of several missions in East Texas.[18] The missions failed quickly, and Spain did not resettle Texas until two decades had passed.[19] Spain returned to East Texas in 1716, establishing several missions and a presidio to maintain a buffer between Mexico and the French territory of Louisiana.[20][21] Two years later, the first civilian settlement in Texas, San Antonio, was established as a way station between the missions and the nearest existing Spanish settlement.[22] San Antonio quickly became a target for raids by the Lipan Apache.[23] In 1749, the Spanish signed a peace treaty with the Apache,[24] which angered the enemies of the Apache and resulted in raids by the Comanche, Tonkawa, and Hasinai tribes.[25] Fear of Indian attacks and remoteness from the rest of the kingdom discouraged settlers from moving to Texas, and it remained one of the least populated provinces of New Spain.[26]
The Comanche signed a treaty with Spain in 1785[27] and later assisted in defeating the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes which had continued to cause difficulties for Spanish settlers.[28][29] An increase in the number of missions in the province allowed for a peaceful conversion of other tribes, and by the end of the 1700s only a few of the hunting and gathering tribes had not been Christianized.[30]
Although Spain also held Louisiana for several years, in 1799 it ceded the neighboring territory back to France. Napoleon selling of Louisiana to the United States the following year, led to a border dispute of Texas.[31] U.S. President Thomas Jefferson insisted that the purchase included all land to the east of the Rocky Mountains and to the north of the Rio Grande.[32] The dispute was resolved in 1819, with the signing of the Adams-On?s Treaty recognizing the Sabine River as Texas's eastern boundary.[33] Two years later, the state became a province of Mexico after the Mexican War of Independence.[34]
Stephen F. Austin
Moses Austin was the first Anglo American to receive permission to settle in Texas, but died before he could bring settlers to Texas. His son, Stephen F. Austin, continued his father's work. In 1821, Texas became part of the newly independent Republic of Mexico and, in 1824, became the northern section of Coahuila y Tejas. Spain's policy of allowing only full-blooded Spaniards to settle Texas also ended with Mexico's independence. On 3 January 1823, Stephen F. Austin began a colony of 297 Anglo-American families known as the "Old Three Hundred" along the Brazos River, after Austin was authorized to do so by Governor Antonio Mar?a Mart?nez and then successive Mexican officials as Mexico went through tumultuous political regime changes. Austin soon organized even more groups of immigrants, with authorization from the Mexican government. By 1830, the 30,000 Anglo settlers in Texas outnumbered Tejanos two to one.
Main articles: Texas Revolution and Republic of Texas
The Convention of 1832 and the Convention of 1833 were responses to rising unrest at policies of the Mexican government, which included ending duty free imports from the United States and the threat of losing a special allowance for slavery in the state. Slavery was abolished in Mexico after its independence.[35] In 1835, Antonio L?pez de Santa Anna, President of Mexico, proclaimed a unified constitution for all Mexican territories, including Texas.[35] The new Constitution ended the republic and the federation, imposed a central style of government with power concentrated in the President, and turned states into provinces with governors appointed from Mexico City. Some states around Mexico rebelled against this imposition, including Chihuahua, Zacatecas and Yucatan. Texans were also irritated by other policies including the forcible disarmament of Texan settlers, and the expulsion of immigrants and legal landowners originally from the United States. Centralista forces' suppression of dissidents in Zacatecas also inspired fear of the Mexican government.[36]
Republic of Texas. The present-day outlines of the U.S. states are superimposed on the boundaries of 1836-1845
On 2 March 1836, the Convention of 1836 signed a Declaration of Independence.[37][38] On 21 April 1836, the Texans-led by General Sam Houston-won their independence at the Battle of San Jacinto. Santa Anna's capture led to the Treaties of Velasco, which gave Texas firm boundaries; Mexico repudiated the treaties, considered Texas a breakaway province, and vowed to reconquer it. Later in 1836, the Texans adopted a constitution that formally legalized slavery. The Republic of Texas included the area