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Texas (State of Texas) - Реферат

the renowned Texas Medical Center in Houston, UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, and the South Texas Medical Center in San Antonio-all hosting some of the world's most prestigious schools in the health sciences.
Houston is home to the Texas Medical Center, the world's largest concentration of research and healthcare institutions. There are 45 member institutions in the Texas Medical Center[91] -all are non-profit organizations, and are dedicated to the highest standards of patient and preventive care, research, education, and local, national, and international community well-being. These institutions include 13 renowned hospitals and two specialty institutions, two medical schools, four nursing schools, and schools of dentistry, public health, pharmacy, and virtually all health-related careers. It is where one of the first, and still the largest, air emergency services was created-a very successful inter-institutional transplant program was developed-and the most heart surgeries are performed there in the world.
San Antonio's South Texas Medical Center facilities rank sixth in clinical medicine research impact in the United States[92] with the University of Texas Health Science Center recognized as a "world leading research and educational institution".[93] The South Texas Medical Center hosts no less than 12 hospitals, 45 medical institutions, and 3 universities, housing the nation's top schools in pharmacy[94] and dentistry.[95]
Dallas is home to the American Heart Association and the UT Southwestern Medical Center, "among the top academic medical centers in the world".[96] The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at the center employs the most Nobel laureates working of any medical school in the world.[97][98]
Texas has eight medical schools,[99] three dental schools, and one optometry school, all involved in research and clinical operations. These include the Baylor College of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, UT Southwestern, University of Texas Medical Branch, and The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The M. D. Anderson Cancer Center is widely considered one of the world's most productive and highly-regarded academic institutions devoted to cancer patient care, research, education and prevention.[100]
Texas has two Biosafety Level 4 laboratories: one at The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston,[101] and the other at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in SanAntonio-the first privately owned BSL-4 lab in the United States.[102]
In May 2006, Texas initiated the program "code red" in response to the report that Texas-at 25.1 percent-has the largest un-insured population of the nation.[103]
See also: List of hospitals in Texas
Education
Main article: Education in Texas
Texas A&M University
Rice University
There are more than 100 colleges and universities and dozens of institutions engaged in research and development in Texas. Most public universities are members of five different systems: University of Houston, University of North Texas, University of Texas, Texas A&M University, Texas State, and Texas Tech. The University of Texas at Austin, Texas A&M University, University of Texas at Dallas and University of Houston are Texas's four largest comprehensive doctoral degree-granting institutions with a combined enrollment of over 145,000.
The state also has many private universities. Rice University-one of the country's leading teaching and research universities-ranked the 17th-best university overall in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.[104] Additionally, Baylor University-the oldest university in the state-was chartered by the Republic of Texas.
The state's public school systems are administered by the Texas Education Agency (TEA). Texas has over 1,000 school districts-all but one of the school districts in Texas are separate from any form of municipal government. School districts may (and often do) cross city and county boundaries-an exception to this rule is Stafford Municipal School District. School districts have the power to tax their residents and to use eminent domain.
Texas also has numerous private schools of all types. The TEA has no authority over private school operations; private schools may or may not be accredited, and achievement tests are not required for private school graduating seniors. Many private schools obtain accreditation and perform achievement tests to show parents the school's interest in educational performance.
The state has some of the least restrictions on home school. Neither TEA nor the local school district has authority to regulate home school activities. There is no minimum number of days in a year, or hours in a day, that must be met, and achievement tests are not required for home school graduating seniors. The validity of home schooling was challenged in Texas, but a landmark case, Leeper v. Arlington ISD, ruled that home schooling was legal and that the state had little authority to regulate the practice.
Further information: List of colleges and universities in Texas and List of school districts in Texas.
See also
" List of Texas-related topics
" List of cities in Texas
" Mexican Texas
" History of Texas
" Republic of Texas
Footnotes
1. ^ http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/CBSA-est2006-pop-chg.html
2. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 8, 2006.
3. ^ [1]
4. ^ a b Texas Almanac. Retrieved on 11, 2006. Retrieved on 07, 2006.
5. ^ Texas. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
6. ^ Wallace Chafe, p.c.
7. ^ Farivar, Cyrus (2007-06-26). Texas-Sized Supercomputer to Break Computing Power Record (HTML). Wired News. Retrieved on [[2008-01-30]].
8. ^ Blumenthal, Ralph (2007 July 30). [http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/07/30/news/lake.php Texas-sized noxious weed threatens State's largest natural lake] (HTML). International Herald Tribune. Retrieved on [[2008-01-30]].
9. ^ Texas (HTML). NETSTATE.COM (12/11/2007). Retrieved on [[01/19/2007]].
10. ^ Flags of Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online
11. ^ Native Americans from the Handbook of Texas Online
12. ^ Chipman (1992), p. 243.
13. ^ Weber (1992), p. 34.
14. ^ ?lvar N??ez Cabeza de Vaca from the Handbook of Texas Online
15. ^ Spanish Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online
16. ^ Weber (1992), p. 149.
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