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Texas (State of Texas) - Реферат


Реферат на тему:
Texas (State of Texas)
State of Texas
Flag of Texas
Seal
Nickname(s): Lone Star State
Motto(s): Friendship.
Before Statehood Known as
The Republic of Texas
Official language(s)
No official language
See languages of Texas
Capital
Austin
Largest city
Houston
Largest metro area
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington[1]
Area
Ranked 2nd in the US
- Total 261,797 sq mi
(678,051 km?)
- Width 773 miles (1,244 km)
- Length 790 miles (1,270 km)
- % water 2.5
- Latitude 25°?50? N to 36°?30? N
- Longitude 93°?31? W to 106°?39? W
Population
Ranked 2nd in the US
- Total 20,851,820
- Density
79.6/sq mi
30.75/km? (28th in the US)
Elevation
- Highest point Guadalupe Peak[2]
8,749 ft (2,667 m)
- Mean 1,700 ft (520 m)
- Lowest point Gulf of Mexico coast[2]
0 ft (0 m)
Admission to Union
December 29, 1845 (28th)
Governor
Rick Perry (R)
U.S. Senators
Kay Bailey Hutchison (R)
John Cornyn (R)
Congressional Delegation
List
Time zones
- most of state Central: UTC-6/-5
- tip of West Texas
Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations TX Tex. US-TX
Web site www.texas.gov
Map of Texas, showing major cities and roads
Texas (IPA: /?t?ks?s/) is a state geographically located in the West South Central United States. With an area of 261,797 square miles (678,050 km?) and a rapidly growing population of 23.5 million spread among 254 counties, Texas is the second largest U.S. state in both area and population. Dallas and Houston are the centers of the state's two largest metropolitan areas. Other major cities include the state capital of Austin, the state's oldest major city of San Antonio, and the western city of El Paso.[3]
Topographically, the easternmost section of the state is covered by the same piney woods that cover much of the Deep South. Moving westward, the state gradually becomes more arid, turning into prairie and eventually desert in the Big Bend region surrounding El Paso. Also, the wide open spaces of the Texan prairie have lent currency to the phrase that "everything is bigger in Texas." Due to its long history as a center of the American cattle industry, Texas is associated throughout much of the world with the image of the cowboy.
Because of its large size and unique history, the regional affiliation of Texas is often debated. Historically and culturally, it has very strong ties to the American South. However, due to Texas's history as a Spanish colony, its border with Mexico, and its large Latino population, Texas can also be considered a Southwestern state. Nevertheless, while most residents acknowledge the state belonging to the Southern and/or Western United States, many claim an independent "Texan" identity superceding regional labels.
Spain was the first European country to claim Texas. Starting in the 1820s, American and European immigrants began arriving in the area. Texas declared its independence from Mexico in 1836 and existed as the independent Republic of Texas for nearly a decade. In 1845, it joined the United States as the 28th state. Texas is one of only four independent states to enter the US federation.[citation needed] Annexation of Texas led the United States to war with Mexico leading to the Mexican Cession and helping plant seeds for the American Civil War. Texas was the 7th state to join the Confederate States of America. Near the turn of the 19th century, discovery of oil led to an economic boom in the state and greatly increased funding for higher education. Texas grew rapidly, becoming the second largest state in population 1994, and became economically diversified, with a growing base in high technology.
Contents
[hide]
" 1 Etymology
" 2 History
o 2.1 Colonization
o 2.2 Independence
o 2.3 Statehood
o 2.4 Confederate States of America
o 2.5 Modern Texas
" 3 Geography
o 3.1 Geology
" 4 Climate
" 5 Demographics
o 5.1 Race and ethnic origins
o 5.2 Religion
o 5.3 Major cities
" 6 Government and politics
o 6.1 Political system
o 6.2 Justice system
o 6.3 Administrative divisions
" 7 Economy
" 8 Culture
o 8.1 Arts and theatre
o 8.2 Sports
" 9 Architecture
" 10 Transportation
o 10.1 Highways
o 10.2 Airports
o 10.3 Passenger rail transportation
" 11 Healthcare and medicine
" 12 Education
"
Etymology
The state's name derives from t?ysha?, a word in the Caddoan language of the Hasinai, which means "friends" or "allies".[4][5][6]
The word Texas has found its way into the English vernacular in ways not directly related to the actual state. Due to the state's large geographic size, the term "Texas sized" is often used to describe large things.[7][8] The state's name has been used as part of several brands such as the Louisville, Kentucky restaurant chain, Texas Roadhouse, the horror movie franchise The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, and the multinational semiconductor corporation Texas Instruments.
A shortened form of Texas, Tex, has been used as a nickname for someone having been born and/or raised in the state. Some people nicknamed "Tex" include basketball coach Tex Winter and original Dallas Cowboys owner Tex Schramm. Tex also has been used as a prefix for several words related to Texas including the food style Tex-Mex or the city Texarkana.
The common nickname for the state, The Lone Star State comes from the single star of the former Republic of Texas. The star is still found on the state seal and flag, symbolizing Texas's fight for independence and that Texas was an independent republic.[9]
See also: Texas (disambiguation)
History
Main article: History of Texas
Prior to European colonization, Texas was inhabited by Native American nations such as the Caddo, Comanche and Apache. Spain was the first European country to claim the territory of Texas. Starting in the 1820s, American and European immigrants began arriving in the area. Mexico declared its independence from Spain, and Texas declared its independence from Mexico in 1836. Following this date, Texas existed as the independent republic for nearly a decade. In 1845, it joined the United States as the 28th state. Texas is one of only four independent states to enter the US federation.[citation needed] Annexation of Texas led the United States to war with Mexico leading to the Mexican Cession. In the American Civil War, Texas was the 7th state to join the Confederate
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