Interest in Shevchenko grew in the late 19th century.Oleksander Konysky expanded his articles on Shevchenko in Zoria (Lviv) into a monograph, Taras Shevchenko-Hrushivs'kyi: Khronika ioho zhyttia (Taras Shevchenko-Hrushivsky: A Chronicle of His Life, 2 vols, 1898-1901); an abridged version of vol 1 was published in Russian in Odesa in 1898. Basing his work on the sources available, Konysky corrected many errors in previous biographies of Shevchenko and presented the first scholarly biography of Ukraine's national bard. Stanyslav Liudkevych's article on the origin and meaning of musicality in Shevchenko's poetry (Moloda Ukra?na, 1901, nos 5-6, 8-9, and 1902, no. 4) was the first of many works dealing with Shevchenko's poetics. Mykhailo Komarov laid the bibliographic foundation of of Shevchenkiana with his guide to publications on Shevchenko in literature and art (1903).
Vasyl Domanytsky's 367-page textological study of Kobzar was published in Kievskaia starina (1906, nos 9-12) and as a separate monograph in 1907. The first 'full' edition of Kobzar was edited by him and published in Saint Petersburg in 1907 (repub in 1908). Dmytro Yavornytsky's booklet of valuable archival materials on Shevchenko's life was published in 1909. Also of interest was his study on the Zaporozhian Cossacks in Shevchenko's poetry, published in Letopis' Ekaterinoslavskoi uchenoi arkhivnoi komissii (no. 8 [1912).
A number of important works appeared in 1914, the centenary year of Shevchenko's birth: Vasyl Shchurat's collection of articles Z zhyttia i tvorchosty Tarasa Shevchenka (From the Life and Works of Taras Shevchenko; Oleksii Novytsky's Taras Shevchenko iak maliar (Taras Shevchenko as an Artist, 1914), the first major study on that subject; and Yakym Yarema's 'Uiava Shevchenka' (Shevchenko's Imagination), a study of the metaphor in Shevchenko's poetry, published in a Ternopil gymnasium's annual report in 1914.
A major contribution to Shevchenko studies was written by the Swedish Slavist Alfred Jensen; his monograph Taras Schewtschenko: Ein ukrainisches Dichter-leben (1916) pointed to the universal themes and concerns in Shevchenko's poetry. Stepan Balei produced the first psychological analysis of Shevchenko's works, Z psykholohi? tvorchosty Shevchenka (On the Psychology of Shevchenko's Creativity, 1916).
Shevchenko studies continued developing during the 1917-20 struggle for Ukraine's independence and in the 1920s under the early Soviet regime. Scholars at the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (VUAN) wrote on Shevchenko using various approaches: research and documentation (Serhii Yefremov, Mykhailo Novytsky, Volodymyr V. Miiakovsky, Yevhen Markovsky); the sociology of literature (Dmytro Bahalii, Yosyf Hermaize, Oleksander Doroshkevych, Mykola Plevako, Volodymyr Koriak); esthetic criticism (Pavlo Fylypovych, Viktor Petrov, Petro Rulin, B. Varneke); and formalism (Borys Yakubsky, Ahapii Shamrai, Yarema Aizenshtok, Borys Navrotsky). The first Soviet book in Shevchenko studies was the essay collection Taras Shevchenko (1921), edited by Yevhen Hryhoruk and Fylypovych, published on the 60th anniversary of the poet's death. Many important studies of Shevchenko were published in the jubilee collections Shevchenkivs'kyi zbirnyk (The Shevchenko Miscellany, 1924) and Shevchenko ta ioho doba (Shevchenko and His Era, 2 vols, 1925-6]). Notable studies also appeared separately: Aizenshtok's booklet Shevchenkoznavstvo-suchasna problema (Shevchenko Studies: A Current Problem, 1922); Bahalii's T. H. Shevchenko i Kyrylo-Metodi?vtsi (T. H. Shevchenko and the Cyrillo-Methodians, 1925); Oleksander Bahrii's Taras Shevchenko v literaturnoi obstanovke (Taras Shevchenko's Literary Environment, 1925); and Plevako's Shevchenko i krytyka (Shevchenko and Criticism, 1926) . In Polish-ruled interwar Galicia, two important studies appeared: Ilarion Svientsitsky's Shevchenko v svitli krytyky i diisnosty (Shevchenko in the Light of Criticism and Reality, 1922) and Mykhailo Vozniak's Shevchenko i kniazhna Repnina (Shevchenko and Princess Repnina, 1925).
In 1926 the Taras Shevchenko Scientific Research Institute was established in Kharkiv, with a branch in Kyiv, to collect Shevchenko's manuscripts and artworks and study his life and oeuvre. Research was published in the institute's annual collection Shevchenko ( 1928, 1930) and its bimonthly Literaturnyi arkhiv (1930-1). The Kyiv branch prepared a dictionary of Shevchenko's lexicon and a dictionary of his acquaintances, but the Stalinist terror prevented their publication.
Serhii Yefremov was a leading Shevchenko scholar of the first quarter of the 20th century was. His many articles were reprinted in the collection Taras Shevchenko (1914). In 1921 Yefremov became head of the VUAN Commission for the Publication of Monuments of Modern Literature. One of the commission's objectives was the preparation of an academic edition of Shevchenko's works. Only two vols appeared-vol 4, Shchodenni zapysky (Daily Notes, 1927), and vol 3, Lystuvannia (Correspondence, 1929), edited by Yefremov and annotated by various scholars. The remaining volumes, as well as O. Novytsky's volume on Shevchenko's artistic works, were never published, because most of the above scholars were arrested and perished in Stalinist prisons and concentration camps during the 1930s.
The terror of the 1930s cut short the meaningful study of Shevchenko in the USSR for decades. The relatively few scholars who survived were placed under the control of Party officials who had nothing to do with scholarship and whose main role was to liquidate all manifestations of independent thought and opinion. A long period of systematic falsification of Shevchenko's works began, and it lasted, to a greater or lesser degree, until the demise of the USSR. Most Soviet studies of Shevchenko written in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s by Party officials (eg, Volodymyr Zatonsky, Andrii Khvylia, and Yevhen Shabliovsky) merit little discussion.
Meanwhile, meaningful Shevchenko studies were produced by ?migr? scholars in the West. In the 1930s, the main center of Shevchenko studies was the Ukrainian Scientific Institute in Warsaw, whose associates prepared and published 13 volumes of a 16-volume edition of Shevchenko's complete works (1934-38) before the German and Soviet occupation of Poland in 1939 put an end to the project. Vols 2-4 and 6-12 were edited by Pavlo Zaitsev,