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The Regions and Cities of Ukraine - Реферат

of Khersones was situated on the territory of Sevastopol. Then in 1783 a military sea fortress and port appeared. It is well-known for its heroicdefence in the Crimean War in 1854-1855 and during the Second World War.
Nowadays such industries as fishing and timber are the leading ones.
The aquarium of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas is situated in the city. Sevastopol has a lot of old buildings and monuments in honour of great sea battles.
This beautiful city attracts tourists from many countries of the world.
Odesa is the Black Sea's gateway to Ukraine. It is the country's largest commercial Black Sea port and a large industrial city. Odesa is a crossroads of cultures, languages and trade.
Pushkin lived here in exile during the 1820s, also it was home to writer and film director Olexander Dovzhenko.
The site of Odesa was controlled from 1526 to 1789 by the Ottoman Turks. In the 18th century Russia took this region and constructed a new port at Odesa. It was named after the ancient Greek colony Odessos. By the 1880s it was the second-biggest Russian port and an important industrial city. Odessa was a hotbed of the 1905 revolution.
The beauty of Odesa is in Prymorsky boulevard with its beautiful buildings and the Potemkin Steps. Film director Eisenstein used Po-temkin Steps in his film "Battleship Potemkin". The 193 steps, built between 1827 and 1841 descend from a statue of Due de Richelieu. At the eastern end of Prymorsky boulevard, Pushkin statue and a British cannon from the Crimean War stand before the Odesa City Hall.
Several of the city's fine museums are the Museum of Maritime History, the Literature Museum, Pushkin Museum, the Museum of Western and Oriental Art and others. The Archaeology Museum is the first museum of this kind in the former Russian Empire. Its Gold Room has jewellery and coins from early Black Sea civilizations, including the first Slavic coins of St. Volodymyr with the tryzub symbol on them.
Odesa is famous for its beaches. The southern beaches are less crowded and more picturesque than the northern ones. The Arkadia area is the most popular and has lots of restaurants and activities.
Lviv, the capital of Western Ukraine, is a large industrial and commercial centre of Ukraine. Its narrow old streets and historic centre make it one of the best places in the country.
Lviv was founded as a fort in the mid-13th century by Danylo Halytski. It was named after his son Lev, which means lion. The lion is the historic symbol of the city. For centuries it has been the Western Ukraine's main city.
Lviv's main street is the Freedom Avenue. It runs from Mitskevych Square to the Ivan Franko Opera and Ballet Theatre. Also in Freedom Avenue you can see the National Museum which once was the Lenin Museum. In the middle of the Avenue there is a statue of Ukraine's national poet, Taras Shevchenko, never without flowers at his feet.
The Museum of Ethnography, Arts and Crafts, with a statue of Liberty in front, demonstrates furniture and porcelain. Each room presents a different era.
Opposite Lviv University there is a monument to the Ukrainian poet Ivan Franko, from which Ivan Franko Park stretches towards the Hotel "Dniester".
Lviv's open-air Museum of Popular Architecture and Life is worth to visit. About 100 old wooden buildings are divided into many ethnographic groups of Western Ukraine.
Shevchenko Avenue attracts people with its beautiful buildings and various shops. There you can find a statue of Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, Ukraine's most famous historian and the country's first president in 1918.
The Museum of Old Ukrainian Culture has a nice display of small, carved wooden Carpathian crosses.
Lviv Picture Gallery has one of the largest collections of European paintings in the country, with over 1,000 paintings on display, and 5,000 in storage.
Lviv is also famous for its churches and monasteries, among which are the Roman Catholic Cathedreal, Uspensky Church, St George's Cathedral, Church of St John the Baptist, Jesuit Church and many others. Lviv is also famous for its Museum of Historic Religions.
Inside the Town Arsenal there is the Museum of Old Arms, with a display of various arms taken from over 30 countries.
Donetsk is a large industrial, scientific and cultural city of Ukraine. It is the centre of coal-mining industry. It is also the main fuel base of Ukraine.
It was founded in 1869. Until 1924 it was named Uzovka. From 1924 to 1961 it was named Stalino, and only in 1961 it became Donetsk.
The city is situated at the river Kalmius. It is very famous for its waste banks. Now the city produces metallurgic and mining equipment, refrigerators, bicycles. Food and light industries are also well-developed in Donetsk.
Donetsk houses five higher educational institutions. Among them there is well-known Donetsk Medical Institute and Donetsk Polytechnical Institute, that train highly-qualified specialists. There are 3 theatres and two museums in the city: Donetsk Opera and Ballet House, Donetsk Museum of Fine Arts are among them.
Kharkiv is quite an old city. It was founded about 350 years ago. The city is situated on the plateau surrounded by the Kharkiv and the Lopan rivers. According to the popular legend the city is named after the Cossack Kharko.
Kharkiv is the historical capital of Slobidska Ukraine. With the foundation of Kharkiv University in 1805, the city became an important educational and cultural centre of Ukraine and the Russian Empire as a whole. Such cultural figures as Kvitka-Osnovianenko, Hulack-Artemovsky, Kostomarov, Repin lived and worked in Kharkiv.
Kharkiv was the capital of Ukraine since 1919 till 1934.
Today Kharkiv is the second largest city in the country. About two million people live there. Kharkiv is one of the largest industrial centres in Ukraine. Its numerous enterprises produce planes, tractors, electronic, mining and medical equipment, TV-sets, refrigerators, paints and cosmetics, clothing and textiles. Furniture and printing industries are well developed in Kharkiv.
Kharkiv is one of the major cultural and scientific centres of Ukraine. There are many schools, higher educational establishments, research institutes in Kharkiv. There is the Scientific Library, the Historical and Natural Science Museums and the Museum of Fine Arts in Kharkiv. The city supports a circus and six professional theatres. Kharkiv is very beautiful, especially in spring. There are over 2500 streets and 26 squares in the city. The largest parks are Gorky Park, Shevchenko Garden with the Zoo, Artem Park, the Forest Park and some others. The city is ornamented with a large number of monuments. The most prominent of them is the one to T. Shevchenko built in 1935.