Jean By the way, I like your dress very much. It's a perfect fit. Where did you buy it, if you don't mind asking?
Liz Thank you for a compliment. I got it at very nice little boutique. It's a bit
expensive, but there are many interesting and original things. If you arejnterested we can stop there.
Jean I'm afraid I can't. I have to cook dinner.
Liz Oh. Don't trouble yourself with the dinner. Look over the coupons I've given you. You can go out to dinner at a discount store.
shopping guide довідник магазинів
discount coupon талон, який дає право на придбання
товарів із скидкою
department store універмаг
shopping centre торгівельний центр
All products and all services have prices. The price depends on different things such as credit terms, delivery, trade-in-allowance guaratees, quality and other forms of service. Which price can produce the biggest profit during a long perid of time. It's hardly possible to determine such a price. The price may be too high to produce a large vojue or too low to cover costs. No other area of marketing operations has been a subject to bad practice. Many businesses perase unsound price policies for long periods of time and ' are not aware about it.
Prices can be determined in different ways. For example, the prices of weat, cotton and other agricultural prices can be decided in large central markets where forces of supply and demand exist. This is pure price competition. The prices on industrial products (iron, steel, etc.) are usually decided by large companies. As a rule the amount and price of goods sold to large number of buyers is controlled by a few competing sellers. Prises also can be set by government, usually for different public services - railroads, electricity, . manufactured gas, bus services, etc.
If demand encases, prices rise, profits expand and new investment is attracted. But other factors may be involved as well. Prices are related to each other in different ways. Ultimately, everything is related in price, since the consumer can buy and must pay everything out of a particular, limited amount of money.
credit terms кредитні умови
trade-in-allowance сума грошейб які віддані за стару річ і яка
to cover COStS включена в рахунок купівлі нової
to peruse unsound покривати затрати
price policies вести нерозумну цінотворчу політику
supply and demand пропозиція і попит
price competition конкуренція у ціноутворенні
to set prices встановлювати ціни
Dick is introducing a new line of products and is talking to his friend Tom, a business consultant, about it.
Dick It's the first time when I'm in business for myself.
Tom Don't worry. The store has always been doing well. It has a great location and as far as your new line of merchandise...
Dick That's what I wanted to talk to you about. Can you give some ideas how to
charge the prices?
Tom With pleasure. Generally, there two types of pricing policies. There is price emphasis and price de-emphasis.
Dick What's the difference?
Tom The price emphasis policy emphasises low prices. This encourages sales. But low price doesn't give extra services.
Dick So, a really low price means no credit, home delivery, repair, installation and other services.
Tom That's what I mean. But many people are interested only in the low price and not in the extra services.
Dick Yes, and vice versa. The price which I set determines the number of sales. I must think the roughly about it.
Tom A good example of price emphasis is "loss leader" pricing.
The computer industry is one of the largest in western countries and especially in the USA. It includes companies that manufacture, sell and lease computers, as well as companies that supply products and services for people working with computers.
A computer cannot think. A human operator puts data into the computer and gives instructions. The operator writes instructions which determine the mathematical operations on information. A computer solves mathematical problems very rapidly. Traditionally, the computer in business is used to process data. This involves different administrative functions such as preparation of payrolls, inventory control in manufacturing, warehousing and distribution operations, customer accounting, billing by banks, insurance companies, public utilities and mass circulation magazines. Now the computer takes on new kinds of jobs. It has become more involved in business operations as an essential tool in making decisions at the highest administrative level.
to give instructions -давати інструкції.
to put data -закладати дані
to solve mathematical problems -вирішувати математичні проблеми
to process data -обробляти дані
preparation of payrolls -підготовка відомостей
inventory control -інвентаризаційний контроль
warehousing -складування товарів
distribution operations -розподільні операції
customer accounting -розрахунок з клієнтом
Simona and Berg work in a large supermarket. Berg is the Manager and Simona is the Head Buyer.
Berg I"m so glad you had this business trip. I also would have liked to go but it's a problem for me to get away. Tell me everything about your business trip.
Simony It was really great, Berg. It was looking over the operations of the store. It's very wellorganized and I believe we should consider adopting some of the methods.
Berg Is it really so?
Simona Absolutely, Berg, their computer system is remarkable.
Berg Can you tell me more about it?
Simona Oh, sure. First, they"ve replaced their cash registers with special terminals.
Berg What for?
Simona They record on tape the department number, classification of items, amount of sale.
Berg Do you think we really need all that information on tape?
Simona We put on the same information on our sales checks.
Berg Yes, but in cases of exchanges we need to know all that.
Simona And for other things too. Berg Well?
Simona For investory control, for example. During the night, the tapes containing the information are fed into the computer.
Berg And then what?
Simona Every morning the computer prepares reports on the sales of the day before, classified by