Реферат на тему:
Теми з англійської мови: marketing, wholesaling, retailing, pricing, computers, international, business.
Marketing includes all the business activities connected with the movement of goods and services from producers to consumers. Sometimes it is called distribution. On the one hand, marketing is made up of such activities as transporting, storing and selling goods and, on the other hand, a series of decisions you make during the process of moving goods from producer to user. Marketing operations include product planning. buying, storage, pricing, promotion, selling, credit, traffic and marketing and marketing research.
The ability to recognise early trends is very important^ Producers must know why, where, for what рифове he consumers by. Market research helps the producer to predict what the people will want. And through advertising he attempts to influence the customer to buy.
Marketing operations are very expensive. They take up more than half of the consumer's dollar. The trend in the USA has been to high mass consumption. The construction of good shopping centres has made goods available to consumers. lt provided a wide range of merchandise and plenty of parking facilities.
producer - виробник
consumer - споживач
user - споживач
distribution - збут, розподіл
storing -складування,збері гання
product planning -розробка нових продуктів
pricing -калькуляція цін
promotion -сприяння в продажі (якого-небудь товару),
наприклад,з допомогою реклами
marketing research -вивчення ринку збуту
trend -тенденція,загальний напрямок
to predict -передбачати
to influence -впливати
Sally and Don work in the Marketing Department of a company, that makes different j meal products.
Don. Hey, Sally, look at these figures. The price of sugar is going up 10%during the next year.
Sally. Oh. that's bad. That means trouble for our jam line.
Don. I think so too. Sugar is the main ingredient, you know. What's your opinion? Sally. Well, we are not the price leaders in the field and jam is a very price sensitive item. According to our marketing research informations consumers aren't particularly brand loyal about jam.
Don. I have a brilliant idea. You know, this could be a great marketing opportunity for us.
Sally. What do you mean?
Don. Well, because of the price rise in sugar we know that the price of jam will go up too. The increase will pass on the consumer, won't it?
Don. Imagine, we find the possibility of changing the ingredients in the jam so that we wouldn't have to raise the price.
Sally. Then we wouldn't trouble about the price rise on sugar because we'll be able to sell the jam at the same price. The idea is that we could market less expensive jam. What a promotional campaign we could have!
Don. Sure. If we do it right we'll sell more and become the leader in the market.
Sally. Now the first thing is to talk to Research and Development.
Don . Right and we'll see when they'll have some samples of new formulars ready. Sally. What about marketing research? I think we should schedule some tests for
responses to the R & D samples.
Don. Well, there is a lot to do. I think we should also change packaging. Now, Sally, that would be great.
Sally. Oh, Don, let's hope for the best. If we don't lose the chance, the competitors
products will stay on the supermarket shelves.
Don. Oh, it's time for lunch. Let's discuss our business in cafeteria.
Sally. Oh, sure, we've got a lot to discuss - distribution, advertising...
to go up - зростати (про ціну)
to raise the prise - піднімати ціну
plice leader - виробник, який встановлює найнижчу ціну на певний товар
prісе sensitive item - товар, рівень продажу якого дуже залежить від ціни
tо be brand loyal - віддавати перевагу
promotional campaign - рекламна кампанія
to market - продавати
to schedule - розробляти план
packaging - пакування
competitor - конкурент
Wholesaling is a part of the marketing system. It provides channels of distribution which help to bring goods to the market. Generally indirect channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or through more complicated channels. A direct channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer.
Wholesaling is often a field of small business, but there is a growing chain movement in the western countries. About a quarter of wholesaling units account for one-third of total sales.
Two-third of the wholesaling middleman are merchant wholesalers who take title to the goods they deal in. There are also agent middlemen who negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don't take title to the goods they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. These agents don't earn salaries. They receive commissions. This is a percentage of the value of the goods they sell.
Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. For example, the average supermarket stocks 5000 items in groceries alone, a retail druggist can have more than 6000 items! Ad a wholesaler handles a large assortment of items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem of both manufacturer and retailer. The storekeeper does not have to deal directly with thousands of different people. He usually has a well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.
wholesaling -оптова торгівля
to provide channels -забезпечувати системою (збуту)
indirect channels -непряма,опосередкована система(збуту)
complicated channels -складна система (збуту)
a retailer -роздрібний торговець
chain movement -рух до об'єднання
wholesale unit -(тут) контора з оптової торгівлі
total sales - спільнний продаж
a middleman -посередник-місіонер
merchant wholesaler -оптовий скутцик
wholesaling middleman -оптовий посередник (скупщик)
to take title to the goods -придбати товар як власність
agent middleman -посередник між виробником і покупцем
to negotiate purchases or sales -вести