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US Economy - Реферат

Реферат на тему:
US Economy
The United States is rich in natural resources the main being iron ore, coal and oil. The nation produces more than 100 million tons of iron a year. Four fifths of the ore mined in the USA comes from the Great Lakes region. Though a great deal of the ore has been used up, it resources have not been exhausted, most of the coal mined in the USA is used by power plants to produce electricity. Coal is also used in the chemical industry for the manufacture of plastics and other synthetics. The production, processing and marketing of such oil products as petrol (called "gasoline" or "gas" in the USA) make up one of America's largest industries. The basic metals and minerals mined in the United States are zinc, copper and silver.
There are two branches of agriculture in the United States. They are crop production and animal husbandry. Some of the main crops grown in the USA are wheat, maize, cotton, tobacco and fruit. Cattle breeding and pig raising make up an important branch of America's agriculture.
To make the farmer's work more productive scientific methods of farming are employed and modern technique of freezing, canning and packaging farm products is used.
The United States is a highly industrialized country with various branches of heavy industry prevailing, namely the mining, metallurgical , automobile and chemical industries as well as engineering. Many branches of light industry are also developed, among them are the textile, clothing, food and wood-working industries.
A great deal of attention in American industry is devoted to research and emphasis is made on the use of labour saving machines, in the past few years the number of workers has increased only a few per cent, while the number of scientists and engineers in the plants has almost doubled.
Mechanization and automation do away with thousands of office jobs, intensify production and increase labour productivity. But they also bring about a further growth of unemployment.
New industries are created as new discoveries are made in physics , chemistry and other sciences. Atomic energy, for example, has created a wide range of new industries. Electronics has become a major industry . Great emphasis is being made on the war industry.
American industry is distributed unevenly. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the eastern part of the country. But industry is spreading out as there is a tendency to build factories far removed from the home plant and closer to natural resources and markets. Good transportation facilities and rapid communication systems make it possible for factories.
The leading US exports are industrial machinery, electronics equipment, textiles, iron, coal, oil products and chemicals, grain and other farm products.
1. to mine coal ( ore etc.) - видобувати вугілля (руду тощо)
2. to exhaust smth. - виснажувати, вичерпувати щось
3. power plant - електростанція
4. to process smth. - обробляти щось
5. to employ smth. - використовувати, застосовувати
6. technique - техніка, методи
7. to can smth. - консервувати щось
8. to package smth. - пакувати щось
9. research - наукові дослідження, науково-дослідна робота
10. labour-saving machine - машина, що заощаджує час
11. in the past few years - за останні декілька років
12. to do away with smth. - покінчити з чимось, ліквідувати щось
13. labour productivity - продуктивність праці
14. to make discovery - робити відкриття
15. unevenly - нерівномірно