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ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Xenophobia, racism, discrimination, putsch, terrorism - Реферат

Xenophobia, racism, discrimination, putsch, terrorism - Реферат

"Putsch" (originally coined with the Z?riputsch of 1839) is often used also, even in French (such as the putsch of November 8, 1942 and the putsch of April 21, 1961, both in Algiers) and Russian (August Putsch in 1991), while the direct German translation is Staatsstreich.
Tactically, a coup usually involves control of some active portion of the military while neutralizing the remainder of a country's armed services. This active group captures or expels leaders, seizes physical control of important government offices, means of communication, and the physical infrastructure, such as streets and power plants. The coup succeeds if its opponents fail to dislodge the plotters, allowing them to consolidate their position, obtain the surrender or acquiescence of the populace and surviving armed forces, and claim legitimacy.
Coups typically use the power of the existing government for its own takeover. As Edward Luttwak remarks in his Coup d'?tat: A Practical Handbook: "A coup consists of the infiltration of a small but critical segment of the state apparatus, which is then used to displace the government from its control of the remainder." In this sense, use of military or other organized force is not the defining feature of a coup d'?tat.
A revolution is a drastic change that usually occurs relatively quickly. The word revolution means "a turn around." This may be achange in the social or political institutions over a relatively short period of time, or a major change in its culture or economy. Some revolutions are led by the majority of the populace of a nation, others by a small band of revolutionaries, a so-called palace revolution only touches the ruling elite. Compare rebellion.
Terrorism is a term with a negative connotation, used to describe certain acts committed by political groups or persons.
As a type of unconventional warfare, terrorism means to weaken or supplant existing political landscapes through capitulation, acquiescence, or radicalization, as opposed to subversion or direct military action.
"Terrorist attacks" usually are characterized as "indiscriminate", the "targeting of civilians", or as executed "with disregard for human life". The term "terrorism" often is used to assert that the enemy's political violence is immoral, wanton, and unjustified. Per the most common definition of terrorism- typically used by states, academics, counter-terrorism experts, and civil, non-governmental organizations, "terrorists" are actors who do not belong to any recognized armed forces or who don't abide the laws of war, and who, therefore, are regarded "rogue actors".
Those labeled "terrorists" rarely identify themselves so and, instead, typically use terms refering to their ideological or ethnic struggle, such as: separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel, jihadi or mujaheddin, or fedayeen, or any similar-meaning word in other languages.
Terrorism has been used by a broad array of political organizations in furthering their objectives; both right-wing and left-wing political parties, nationalistic, and religious groups, revolutionaries and ruling governments.[1]
Some persons and governments believe that the term "Terrorism", as defined in dictionaries, now has a negative connotation, under the theory that a person who attacks the civilian population is, instead, a militant, regardless of the status of the victims of terrorism.
Deportation, not to be confused with extradition, generally means the expulsion of someone from a country. In general it refers to the expulsion of foreigners (the expulsion of natives is usually called banishment, exile, or transportation). Historically, the British Empire practiced the deportation of individual criminals to penal colonies, such as Australia.
Deportation can also happen within a country, when for example an individual or a group of people is forcibly resettled to a different part of the country. If ethnic groups are affected by this, it is also referred to as population transfer. The pretext is often that said groups might assist the enemy in war.
During World War II, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Volga Germans, Crimean Tatars, Chechens, and others were deported in the Soviet Union by Stalin and Japanese Americans were deported in the United States of America by Franklin Roosevelt.
In the 19th century, the United States of America government, particularly under Andrew Jackson, deported numerous Amerindian tribes. The most infamous of these deportations became known as the Trail of Tears.
Almost all countries reserve the right of deportation of foreigners, even those who are longtime residents. In general, deportation is reserved for foreigners who have committed serious crimes, or entered the country illegally, or are wanted in another country (see extradition). It can also be used on those considered to be a threat to the country. Deportation is generally done directly by the government's executive apparatus rather than by order or authority of a court, and as such is often subject to a simpler legal process (or none), with reduced or no right to trial, legal representation or appeal.
Deportation often requires a specific process that must be validated by a court or senior Minister. It should therefore not be confused with Administrative Removal, which is the process of a country refusing to allow an individual to enter that country.