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30 тем по англійській мові - Реферат

mineral resources, particularly in terms of hard coal. Huge reserves of coal and iron have formed for the metallurgical industry. The reserves of black coal are concentrated in two basins: the Donts and Vviv-Volynian Basins. Today commercially valuable deposits of manganese ore, oil, gas, nickel, graphite, bauxite, rare metals and other valuable raw materials have been found in Ukraine. For example titanium is important in the space, chemical, atomic and other areas. It has been discovered in Dnipropetrovsk provinces. There are many curative mineral waters in Ukraine. In a word Ukraine has inexhaustible reserves of natural resources.
That is why our generation must to do our best to use this resources in right way and I believe if we do that we will come to firsts positions in the world.
*The Hermitage
I can't say that I often go to museums. We are always in a hurry and it is very difficult to spare 2 or 3 hours to visit a local museum. But when I travel I always try to see all the museums and exhibitions that can be found in the place I am. Some month ago I was in S. Petersburg. I visited many places of interest including the Hermitage Gallery and now I want to tell you about it.
I was greatly impressed byvisiting this museum of art. It was founded in 1764 by Ecatherine the Second when she bought 225 pictures in Berlin. Under Nicholas I the Hermitage was reconstructed (1840-52), and it was opened to the public in 1852. Following the October Revolution of 1917, the imperial collections became public property. The museum is housed within five interconnected buildings, including the Winter Palace (1754-62) and the Small, Old, and New Hermitages.
Now I'd like to tell you about pictures, sculptures and other works of art that I've seen in the Hermitage Gallery. A great number of wonderful pictures are offered there. Everyone can find some kind of pictures to enjoy, for example the pictures by the world's greatest masters: Michelangelo, Raphael, Rembrands, Rubens and many others. All great schools of paintings are represented there: Italian, Spanish, German, and French. A few words about sculptures. I saw a lot of vases, statues and fountains. The most beautiful thing I have ever seen was the fountain belonged to Alexander the Second. Among other outstanding pieces of art I saw the coach of Ecatherine the Second and beautiful tapestries. It took 60 years to make one of these tapestries.
In conclusion I'd like to stress that no one could see everything for the one visit. To enjoy the Hermitage Gallery you must visit it several times.
*The life of Ukrainian Youth
Nowadays when our independent state Ukraine is developing, much attention is paid for our youth because we are the future of our country. In today's Ukraine, people aged between 15 and 28 number a little less than 10 million, and their ration is dropping. Some 80 percent of the younger generation various physical malfunctions. Among the problems most actually for our Youth are low personal income, low parent's take-home pay, and bad living conditions because of our current economical situation. Youth problems are caused not only by today's economic hardships. The worst destabilising factor in the modern Ukrainian community is the crisis of consciousness and cultural and moral values. Nevertheless our youth take active part in life of community. For example in Greenpeace young people learn to love their land and the world that surrounds them. This organisation protest against environmental pollution, against murder of all animals. Some young people work in their church organisations. Future belongs to the young, that is why the political life of our country is important to us. Many young people are engaged is political parties and organisations such as: "the greens", the Union of Ukrainian Youth, the Scouts.
Great Britain is only major country in the world, which does not have a written constitution set out in a single document. The constitution in the UK is made up of Acts of Parliament, common law and conventions which may be changed by general agreement. The British Government sits in London. Great Britain is a limited or constitutional or parliamentary monarchy headed by Queen Elizabeth II now. The Queen acts only on the advice of her Ministers. She reigns but she doesn't rule. Parliament, which consists of two houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords, both of which arose during the Middle Ages, limit the power of the Queen. England was a first country to have a Parliament. The House of Lords is an out-of-date institution.
The House of Commons is elective and more powerful. The members of Parliament sit on both sides of the Speaker, the government on his right, the opposition on his left.
Most members of the government belong to the party, which wins a majority of the sits in the House of Commons. The leader of the majority party becomes the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister chooses the Government. From the 60 ministers in the government Prime Minister chooses the smaller group of about 20, called the Cabinet. The Cabinet takes all major political decisions. At present there are four political parties in England, the Conservative (or Tory) Party, the Labour Party, the Liberal Party, the Social-Democratic Party.
Since 1867 British politics have been dominated by two major parties, the Conservative Party and the Labour Party, which both represent the ruling class.
The Constitution outlines the structure of the national government and specifies its powers and duties. Under the Constitution the powers of the government are divided into three branches - the legislative which consists of the Verhovna Rada, the executive, headed by the President, and the judicial, which is led by the Supreme Court.
The parliament - the Verhovna Rada is the only body of the legislative power in Ukraine. There are 450 peoples deputies who are elected for a term of four years on the basis of universal, equal suffrage by the secret ballot.
The Verhovna Rada`s main function is making laws. Law drafting work is performed by its Committees.
The Verhovna Rada adopts the State Budget for the period from January 1 to December 31 and controls the execution of it. The monetary unit of Ukraine is the Hrivnia.
The President of Ukraine is the head of the state and speaks on behalf of it. He is elected directly by the voters for a term of five years with no more then two full terms.
The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers. It is responsible to the President and is accountable to the Verhovna Rada. It carries out