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Seven Wonders of the World - Реферат

invented until the Enlightenment-era, and the concept of a "Middle Age" did not become popular until the 16th century. Further, the Romanticism movement glorified all things related to the Middle Ages, or more specifically anything pre-Enlightenment era, suggesting such lists would have found a popular audience in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Some items found on some of the lists are not technically from the Middle Ages (according to modern historical standards), but we know the lists were not created by modern medieval historians, so such standards did not apply.
Typically representative of the seven:[1][3][4][2]
" Stonehenge
" Colosseum
" Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa
" Great Wall of China
" Porcelain Tower of Nanjing
" Hagia Sophia
" Leaning Tower of Pisa
Other sites that have been mentioned include:
" Cairo Citadel[5]
" Ely Cathedral[6]
" Taj Mahal[7]
" Cluny Abbey[8]
Modern lists
In the tradition of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, many other lists of wonders have been proposed, including both human feats of engineering and wonders of Nature. However, these lists are rather informal, and there is no consensus on any particular list.
Modern wonders
The American Society ofCivil Engineers compiled another list of wonders of the modern world:[9]
Wonder Date Started Date Finished Locations
Channel Tunnel
December 1, 1987
May 6, 1994
Strait of Dover, between England and France
CN Tower
February 6, 1973
June 26, 1976
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Empire State Building
January 22, 1930
May 1, 1931
New York, New York, USA
Golden Gate Bridge
January 5, 1933
May 27, 1937
Golden Gate Strait, north of San Francisco, California, USA
Itaipu Dam
January 1970 May 5, 1984
Paran? River, South America
Delta Works
May 10, 1997
Netherlands, Europe
Panama Canal
January 1, 1880
January 7, 1914
Isthmus of Panama, Central America
Tourist travel wonders
The following list of the top seven tourist travel wonders (not including pilgrimages) was compiled by Hillman Wonders:[10]
" Great Pyramids of Giza
" Great Wall of China
" Taj Mahal
" Serengeti Migration
" Galapagos
" Grand Canyon
" Machu Picchu
Natural wonders
Similar to the other lists of wonders, there is no consensus on a list of seven natural wonders of the world, as there has been debate over how large the list should be. One of the many lists was compiled by CNN:[11]
" Grand Canyon
" Great Barrier Reef
" Harbor of Rio de Janeiro
" Mount Everest
" Polar Aurora
" Par?cutin volcano
" Victoria Falls
Underwater wonders
This list of underwater wonders is of unknown origin but has been repeated sufficiently often to acquire a degree of notability:[12] [13]
" Palau
" Belize Barrier Reef
" Great Barrier Reef
" Deep-Sea Vents
" Galapagos Islands
" Lake Baikal
" Northern Red Sea
New Seven Wonders
Two "New Seven Wonders" lists have been promoted since 2000.
In 2001 an initiative was started by Swiss organization New Open World Corporation (NOWC) to choose the New Seven Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments (ongoing).[14] Twenty-one finalists were announced January 1, 2006.[15] The results will be announced on 7 July 2007.
In November 2006 the American national newspaper USA Today in conjunction with the American television show Good Morning America revealed a list of "New Seven Wonders" as chosen by six judges.[16] The wonders were announced one per day over a week on Good Morning America. An "eighth wonder" was chosen on November 24 from viewer feedback.[17]
Number Wonder Location
1 Potala Palace
Lhasa, Tibet, China
2 Old City of Jerusalem
3 Polar ice caps
Polar regions
4 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Monument
Hawaii, United States
5 Internet
6 Mayan ruins
Yucat?n Peninsula, Mesoamerica
7 Great Migration of Serengeti and Masai Mara
Kenya and Tanzania
8 Grand Canyon (viewer-chosen "eighth wonder")
Arizona, United States
See also
" Eighth Wonder of the World
" Seven Blunders of the World -- a list by Mahatma Gandhi
" New Seven Wonders of the World
1. ^ a b Hereward Carrington (1880-1958), "The Seven Wonders of the World: ancient, medieval and modern", reprinted in the Carington Collection (2003) ISBN 0-7661-4378-3, page 14.
2. ^ a b I H Evans (reviser), Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (Centenary edition Fourth impression (corrected); London: Cassell, 1975), page 1163
3. ^ Edward Latham. A Dictionary of Names, Nicknames and Surnames, of Persons, Places and Things (1904), page 280.
4. ^ Francis Trevelyan Miller, Woodrow Wilson, William Howard Taft, Theodore Roosevelt. America, the Land We Love (1915), page 201.
5. ^ The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Crusades (2001, page 153))
6. ^ The Rough Guide To England (1994, page 596))
7. ^ Palpa, as You Like it, page 67)
8. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia, v.16 (1913), page 74
9. ^ American Society of Civil Engineers Seven Wonders
10. ^ Hillman Wonders
11. ^ CNN Natural Wonders
12. ^ Underwater Wonders of the World
13. ^ 2nd list of Underwater Wonder
14. ^ New Seven Wonders
15. ^ Finalist Page
16. ^ New Seven Wonders panel
17. ^ ABC Good Morning America "7 New Wonders" Page