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ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Poltava and places of interest - Реферат

Poltava and places of interest - Реферат

by two or stars, in second is or gates with three towers, accompanied by two or stars.
- Bow with arrow and stars are the elements which went into Poltava and Pyriatyn coats of arms, indicate on historic role the edges in defence of own earths, and also Poltava as administrative centre.
- Urban gates with three towers and flagpoles - element eldest of coats of arms, basic Lokhvytsia coat of arms element. It indicates on durability, power, edge inviolability, cossack traditions.
- A water wave - element of Komsomol's'k and Kremenchuk emblems, symbolizes riches of water spaces.
- A Cossack cross is symbol on historic colours of Poltava regiments and Myrhorod and Zin'kiv emblems.
- A horseshoe is blown about element of patrimonial Ukraine coats of arms - happiness symbol, good, love, consent.
- A heart is hetman coat of arms element of P.Polubotok, V.Kochubey, symbolizes Poltavschyna as Ukraine heart, her grandeur, spirituality, - earth, begining by mother country to prominent figures of world significance.
- Sheaf is personifies natural resource, earths fertility, industry of its inhabitants, national traditions.
- A Crown is power, firmness, grandeur and glory.
Adopted colours:
- Raspberry - most blown about colour of cossack colours - power, bravery.
- Azure means wrestling after freedom, hope.
- Or means sun, lightly, welfare, kindness, work, dignity.
The modern emblem (large)
A little coat of arms crowned by crown with five towers and enframed by guelder roze branches, entwisted by blue-yellow ribbon. Over crown is superscription "Poltavschyna".
The flag
The Poltavs'ka oblast' flag was approved by February 10, 2000 by the solution XI of session of regional advice XXIII of convocation and represents the yellow cossac's cross on a blue rectangular. A ratio of the parts is 2:3.
The cossac's cross is the basic element of the arms of the Poltavs'ka oblast' was introduced in composition of a flag, which one is included on historical motives. In middle of XVIII century a some cossac's regiments were joint around of the Poltava shelf, that had dark blue flag with cossack's cross.
Battle of Poltava
The Battle of Poltava, painted 1726
On June 27, 1709 one of the famous events in the World History took place at Poltava. Russian troops headed by Peter I won a brilliant victory over the Swedish army headed by Karl the XII-th.
The victory at Poltava predetermined the outcome of the North war (1700-1721) waged by Russia against Sweden for the outlet into the Baltic sea and returning the Russian lands in Pre-Baltic region captured by Sweden. In the course of the North war the Swedish king Karl XII commenced the campaign against Moscow. Having met the stubborn resistance at Smolensk he turned his troops to the Ukraine. The Ukrainian people rose to fight against invaders. When the enemy approached the population of towns and villages annihilated food-stuffs, burned the dwellings down and left for the forests under the protection of the Russian troops. Detachments of the regular army and partisans wore the enemy forces down in skirmishes. Karl XII attempted to capture the fortress of Poltava trying to replenish here their exhausted food supplies and, mainly, to use convenient geographical position of the fortress for the communication with their allies - the Turkish sultan and the Crimean khan.
Battle of Poltava: a fragment of the great mosaic by Mikhail Lomonosov.
The Russian command, taking into account the important strategic position of Poltava, sent there in due time six infantry battalions commanded by colonel A.S. Kelin. The fortress was fortified with additional ramparts, wooden paling, bastions...
Due to courage and staunchness of the Russian soldiers and inhabitants of the town this "wretched", as Karl XII called it, fortress withstood almost three months long siege of the famous Swedish army. At Poltava's walls the invaders lost nearly six thousand soldiers and officers and this considerably weekend their forces.
During Poltava`s siege the Russian troops were concentrating for the decisive battle. Peter's I army crossed the Vorskla river to the right bank where the fortified camp had been built. The system of earthen fortifications was built at Poltava: redoubts which played an important role in repulsing enemy's attacks during the first stage of the battle. For the first time in the history of military art separate closed earthen fortifications were used. Such fortifications appeared in armies of Western Europe only 80 years later.
At dawn on June 27 Swedish infantry and cavalry began their offensive. The enemy was hit by aimed rifle and artillery fire. Chased by Russians the regiments of enemy's cavalry were defeated utterly.
Peter I ordered to withdraw the cavalry from the redoubts to the fortified camp where the main part of the Russian army-infantry and artillery were concentrated.
The Swedes mistook this withdrawal for the retreat and followed the Russian cavalry. But unexpectedly they found themselves under devastating fire of Russian artillery. Having suffered great losses the disorganized regiments retread.
A three hours interval in the battle ensued at 6 o'clock in the morning on June 27. The second crucial stage of the decisive battle began, it lasted about two hours. Karl XII attempted to strike a decisive blow into the centre but he failed to do it. No later than in half an hour the Swedes wavered. Russian infantry and cavalry began to press the enemy's regiments. Soon their retreat turned out to be a panic flight.
At Poltava the Swedes lost 9.234 soldiers killed, 2.874 soldiers and officers were taken prisoners. Russian losses were 1.345 killed, 3.290 wounded. The rest of the Swedish army 16.264 men were taken prisoners at Perevolochna.
The Battle of Poltava is an unfading example of the feat of arms, courage and valour of the people for their independence. The victory at Poltava saved the Ukranian and Byelorussian peoples from enslavement, strengthened their friendship with the Russian people.
The immortal deed of the heroes in the battle of Poltava is eternalized in numerous monuments.In Poltava it is a majestic Monument of Glory set up in honour of the 100-th anniversary of the Battle of Poltava, the Monument on the spot where Peter I had a rest after the Battle which was set up to the 140-th anniversary of that famous battle. The Monument to valorous defenders of Poltava and the courageous commandant of the fortress colonel A.S. Kelin was erected in 1909.
Memorable Badges marked the region where the Russian troops crossed the Vorskla River, the first and the second fortified camps of Russian troops. There is a Common grave of Russian soldiers who fell in action in the Battle of Poltava. The Monument of the Swedes who fell in action from the Russians was set up in a honour of the 200-th anniversary of the battle. In 1909 the Monument to the Swedes from their compatriots was set up.
The sculpture of Peter I is placed in front of the Museum, it was made by academician A. Adamson in 1915.
Numerous historic relics are kept in the Museum of History of the Battle of Poltava.
The State Museum-Reserve "The Field of the Battle of Poltava" was created in 1981. It comprises the historic places and monuments connected with the events of the native history.
1. E.Shyrai - http://patent.net.ua/symbol/regions/pl/en.html
2. http://www.ukrstore.com.ua/6153361133
3. http://www.ukrainian-women.com/location.shtml