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Viktor Yushchenko - Реферат


Реферат на тему:
Viktor Yushchenko
Contents
1 Early life
2 Central banker
3 Prime Minister
4 "Our Ukraine" leader and political portrait
5 Presidential election of 2004
5.1 Dioxin poisoning
5.2 Unprecedented three rounds of voting
6 President
6.1 Inauguration
6.2 Presidency
6.3 Dismissal of other Orange Revolution members
7 Family and private life
8 See also
9 References
10 External links
Early life
Viktor A. Yushchenko was born on February 23, 1954 in Khoruzhivka, Sumy Oblast, Ukrainian SSR, into a family of teachers. His father, Andriy Andriyovych Yushchenko (1919-1992), took part in the Second World War, where he was captured by Germans and placed in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp as a POW, but survived. After returning home, Andriy Yushchenko taught English at a local school. Viktor's mother, Varvara Tymofiyovna Yushchenko (1918-2005), was both a Physics and Maths teacher at the same school.
Later, Viktor Yushchenko graduated from the Ternopil Finance and Economics Institute, beginning his profession as an accountant. After completing his studies (1975), he worked as a deputy of the chief accountant in a kolkhoz, then served as a conscript in the Border Guard unit of KGB on the Soviet-Turkish border (1975-1976).
Central banker
Yushchenko worked in the banking system from 1976. From 1983 he was the Deputy Director for Agricultural Crediting at the Ukrainian Republican Office of the USSR State Bank. Then (1990-1993) he worked as vice-chairman and first vice-chairman of the joint-stock non-state-run agroindustrial bank Ukraina. In 1993, he was invited by Vadym Hetman to work in the newly-formed National Bank of Ukraine (Ukraine's central bank). After Hetman's resignation in 1993, Yushchenko was appointed the head of the supervisory board of the Bank. Later, in 1997, he was reappointed as the head of the Bank by the parliament.
As a central banker, Yushchenko played an important part in the creation of Ukraine's national currency, the hryvnia, and the establishment of a modern regulating system for commercial banking. He also successfully overcame a debilitating wave of hyper-inflation that hit the country and managed to defend the value of the currency following the 1998 financial crisis in Russia.
In 1998, he wrote a thesis on "The Development of supply and demand of money in Ukraine" and defended it in the Ukrainian Academy of Banking, getting Candidate of Economic Sciences (Doctor of Economics) degree.
Prime Minister
In December 1999, Yushchenko was unexpectedly nominated to be the prime minister by President Leonid Kuchma after the previous candidate, Valeriy Pustovoytenko, fell short by one vote of ratification by the parliament.
In 2001, Yushchenko refused to support and lead the mass protests against Kuchma's regime which erupted following the murder of journalist Georgiy Gongadze. Moreover, he co-signed a highly critical public address with Kuchma calling the protesters "fascists" -- despite the fact that many of them were supporters of his cabinet.
Significant economic progress was made during Yushchenko's cabinet service, though critics argue that this was made possible by the general situation of the economy, and was not the result of his actions. Soon, his government (particularly, deputy prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko) became embroiled in a confrontation with influential coal mining and natural gas industry leaders. The conflict resulted in a 2001 no-confidence vote by the parliament, which was mainly the work of the Communists, who had opposed Yushchenko's economic policies, and centrist groups associated with the country's powerful "oligarchs". The vote was carried by 263 to 69 and resulted in Yushchenko's removal from office.
The fall of his government was viewed with dismay by many Ukrainians; four million votes were gathered in support of a petition supporting him and opposing the parliamentary vote and a 10,000-strong demonstration was held in Kiev.
"Our Ukraine" leader and political portrait
Official image of Yushchenko, also used in Yushchenko and Our Ukraine political campaigns.
In 2002, Yushchenko became the leader of the Our Ukraine (Nasha Ukrayina) political coalition, which received a plurality of seats in the year's election to Verkhovna Rada (Ukrainian parliament) . However, the number of seats won wasn't enough for a majority, and the efforts to form it together with other opposition parties failed. Since then, Yushchenko has remained the leader and public face of the "Our Ukraine" ("Nasha Ukrayina") parliament faction.
Yushchenko was widely regarded as the moderate political leader of anti-Kuchma opposition, since other opposition parties were less influential and had fewer seats in the parliament.
Since the end of his term as prime minister, Yushchenko has become a charismatic political figure popular among Ukrainians in the western and central regions of the country. As of 2001-2004, his rankings in popularity polls were higher than those of the president at the time, Leonid Kuchma. [1]
As a politician, Viktor Yushchenko is widely perceived as a mixture of West-oriented and moderate Ukrainian nationalist. He is also an advocate of massive privatization of the economy. His opponents (and allies) sometimes criticize him for indecision and failure to reveal his position, while advocates argue that these are the signs of Yushchenko's commitment to teamwork, consensus, and negotiation. He is also often accused of being unable to form a united and strong team that is free of inner quarrels. One of his former political allies, Yulia Tymoshenko who, during the Kuchma presidency, was arrested and then cleared of fraud charges relating to gas privatization, is often perceived by Ukrainians as a more decisive and charismatic political figure.
Since becoming the President of Ukraine, Viktor Yushenko has been a honorary leader of "Our Ukraine" party. In the latest parliament election in March 2006 the party, led by the Prime-minister Yekhanurov received less then 14% of the national vote, taking the third place behind Party of Regions, and Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc.
Presidential election of 2004
Main article: Ukrainian presidential election, 2004
In 2004, as President Kuchma's term came to an end, Yushchenko announced that he was an independent candidate for president. His major rival was Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych. Since his term as prime minister, Yushchenko had slightly modernized his political platform, adding social partnership and other liberal slogans to older ideas of European integration, including Ukraine joining NATO, and fighting corruption. Supporters of Yushchenko were organized in the "Syla Narodu" ("Power to the People") electoral coalition, which was led by himself and his political ally YuliaTymoshenko, with the Our Ukraine coalition being the main constituent force.
Yushchenko's campaign was built on face-to-face communication with the voters, since the government prevented most major TV channels from providing equal coverage to the candidates. Meanwhile, his rival, Yanukovych, frequently appeared in the news, even accusing Yushchenko, whose father was a Red Army soldier imprisoned at Auschwitz, of being "a Nazi."[citation needed]
Dioxin poisoning
Comparative Photos Showing Yuschenko Immediately Prior To And Immediately Following Dioxin Poisoning
The campaign was often bitter, controversial, and violent. Yushchenko became seriously ill in early September 2004. He was flown to Vienna's Rudolfinerhaus clinic for treatment and diagnosed with "acute pancreatitis, accompanied by interstitial edematous changes", said to be due to "a serious viral infection and chemical substances which are not normally found in food products", which Yushchenko claimed to be the work of agents of the government. After the illness, his face became heavily disfigured; grossly jaundiced, bloated and pockmarked.
After seeing Mr. Yushchenko's deformed face on the evening news, the Dutch toxicologist Bram Brouwer contacted the Rudolfinerhaus to test some of Yushchenko's blood at the Free University of Amsterdam for dioxin. According to Dr Michael Zimpfer, president of the Rudolfinerhaus, these tests provided conclusive evidence that Yushchenko's condition resulted from "high concentrations of dioxin, most likely orally administered". This hypothesis had already been suggested by
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