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Diachrony of Semantic Conversives in English - Дипломна робота

The word "family" denotes the members of the household" "The members of the household are denoted by the word "family"), "emission" (the process contrary to submersion/absorption}, "the demonstration of the inherent property", "uncontrolled motion", "covering the surfice of something", "radiation", "emotional states", "opinion ","providing" and others.
Besides, Yu.Apresyan's classification of the conversives according to their semantic features includes the number of transformations performed during the process of conversion. Particularly, the scientist differentiates between the two-transformations (1 type), three-transformations (5 types) and four-transformations (23 types) conversives. The topicality of this question (i.e. performing certain transformation during the process of conversion) enabled him as well as some other linguists (e.g. I. Melchuk [23, p. 152]) to specify another kind of classification of semantic conversives - according to their syntactic features.
1.2.3. Quasi-conversives.
Quasi-conversives should be differentiated from from proper conversives. Quasi-conversives are "approximate'' conversives, i.e. the ones that do not have completely the same meaning. The differences between them can be either neutralized in the context, or inessential for the given text.
E.g. 1) We were taken aback by the committee's arrival (the sentence has the sememe of suddenness). - We were not prepared for the committee's arrival (the sememe of suddenness is not present).
2) She has outgrown the dress (she got taller). - The dress got too small for her. (it could shrink as well).
1.3. Componential Analysis of Semantic Conversives.
The componential analysis deals primarily with the semantic structure of a linguistic unit, i.e. the sememes that the meaning of a certain word contains. Meaning is the sense that a word or a group of words conveys. Linguists usually distinguish between "grammatical" meaning as the relationships that may be said to exist between linguistic elements such as the words within a sentence, and "lexical" meaning as the sense a speaker attaches to linguistic elements. In this case, we are more concerned with the lexical meaning of the semantic conversives.
The componential analysis of the conversive pairs revealed their complex structure. We designed the semantic structure of the conversives "to sell - to buy" on the basis of 5 modern dictionaries of the contemporary English language (both British and American). Thus, the semantic structure of the verb "to sell" contained 13 major sememes, and that of the verb "to buy" contained 11. Also, the main components of meaning were determined. The dominant components can be represented by the opposition "supply : demand".
1.3.1. "To sell" - Semantic Structure in the Language System.
1) American Heritage Dictionary (Dl)
1. To exchange or deliver for money or its equivalent.
2. To offer for sale, as for one's business or livelihood: The partners sell textiles.
3. To give up or surrender in exchange for a price or reward: sell one's soul to the devil.
4. To be responsible for the sale of; promote successfully: Publicity sold that product.
5. To persuade (another) to recognize the worth or desirability of: They sold me on the idea…
[intransitive]:
6. To exchange ownership for money or its equivalent; engage in selling.
7. To be sold or be on sale: Grapes are selling high this season.
8. To attract prospective buyers; to be popular on the market: …an item that sells "well.
9. To be approved of; gain acceptance.
2) New Webster's Dictionary and Thesaurus (D2)
1. To dispose of the ownership of (goods, property or rights) to another or others in exchange for money: he sold his house to them.
2. To effect such a transfer as an agent: he sold their house for them.
3. To offer for sale: he sells antiques.
4. To lead to the sale of: advertising sold a million copies.
5. To betray for a reward: he sold them to the police.
6. (pop.) To cheat, deceive: he was sold over the deal.
[intransitive]:
7. To offer something for sale: is she thinking of selling?
8. To find a buyer: these goods sell quickly.
3) Webster's New World Dictionary of American English (D3)
1. To give up, deliver, or exchange (property, goods, services, etc.) for money or its equivalent.
2. a) To have or offer regularly for sale; deal in: a store that sells hardware, to sell real estate;
b) To make or try to make sales: to sell chain stores.
3. a) To give up or deliver (a person) to his or her enemies or into slavery, bondage, etc;
b) To be a traitor to; betray.
4. To give up or dispose of (one's honor, one's vote, etc.) for profit or a dishonorable purpose.
5. To bring about, help in, or promote the sale of: television sells many products.
6. [Colloquial] a) To establish faith, confidence, or belief in: to sell oneself to the public.
b) To persuade (someone) of the value of something; convince (with on): sell him on the idea.
7. [Slang] To cheat, or dupe.
[intransitive]:
8. To exchange property, goods or services for money, etc.
9. To work or act as a salesman or salesclerk.
10. To be a popular item on the market; attract buyers.
11. To be sold (for or at), belts selling for $ 6.
12. [Colloquial] To be accepted, approved, etc.: a scheme that won't sell.
4) The Concise Oxford Dictionary (D4)
1. To make over or dispose of in exchange for money.
2. To cause to be sold: the author's name alone will sell many copies; keep stock of for sale or to be a dealer in: Do you sell candles?
3. To betray for money or other reward: sell one's country.
4. To offer dishonourably for money or other consideration, to make a matter of corrupt bargaining: sell justice, oneself, one's honour or chastity.
5. [Slang] To disappoint by not keeping engagement etc., by failing in some way, or by trickery: Sold again!
6. Advertise or publish merits of; to give (person) information on value of something: selling point.
[intransitive]:
7. (of goods) To find purchasers: will never sell; selling like wildfire, hot cakes; to have specified price: it sells at or for $ 5.
5) Collins COBUILD Dictionary (D5)
1. If you sell something, you let someone have it in return for an agreed sum of money: He is going to sell me his car.
2. If a shop sells a particular thing, it has it in the shop for people to buy: Do you sell flowers?
3. If something sells for a particular price, it is offered for sale at that price: These little books sell for 95 pence each.
4. If something sells, it is bought by the public: It's a nice design, but I 'm not sure if it will sell.
5. If a person or thing sell something, they cause people to
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