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Diachrony of Semantic Conversives in English - Дипломна робота

utterance. The logical process of conversive correlation cannot take place in such cases, as the conversed statements must have the same meaning, i.e. be synonymic.
Besides, conversive correlation is often confused with conversion (or zero-inflection), whichis a word-building technique that lies in one part of speech becoming another, i.e. conversion is a special non-affixal type of transposition of words.
1.2. Classification of Semantic Conversives.
Lexical conversibility belongs to the categories that are not explored enough. Nevertheless, generalization of the available data about conversive correlation makes it possible to outline a number of structural types of this linguistic phenomenon. As a rule, conversives are classified according to 1) their morphological features and 2) their semantic features, i.e. in accordance with the general semantic categories inherent to them. Besides, the classification suggested by Yu.Apresyan and I.Melchuk is based on the number of transformations performed during the process of conversive correlation. This division is rather arbitrary, so all these types of classification are interrelated and often presented as a single unity (it can be illustrated by the classification given by Yu.Apresyan [14, p. 266-272]).
1.2.1. Classification of Semantic Conversives According to Their Morphological Features.
According to the morphological and syntactic features of conversives, L.A.Novikov divided them into a number of groups [25, p. 217 - 219]. It should be mentioned that conversive correlation, above all, is characteristic of verbs which has also designed its own means of conversiveness expression: the grammatical category of voice.
I. Verbal conversives:
1) Voice structures of the type to build - to be build, to describe - to be described, to decide - to be decided, to discuss - to be discussed, etc. This type is in essence purely grammatic.
2) Verbs (predicates) with the meaning of cause and consequence: to frighten - to be afraid, to make happy - to be happy, to cause death - to die (of), etc. Such predicates are often viewed as "deep verbs", thus this variety is very close to the purely grammatical one.
3) Verbs (predicates) with the meaning of an action and the object of this action: to export - to be the object of export, to study - to be the subject of study. The following conversive statements have the same meaning:
We study math. Math is the subject of our study.
4) The verbs that are opposite according to the participants of the action: to sell- to buy, to export - to import, to let - to rent (an apartment), to give - to take, to lean (on) - to support, to win - to lose, etc.
5) The verbs that can be found in both initial and conversed statements without being substituted by their conversives (due to their specific features). They are "conversives by themselves", i.e. the words that that do not have their conversive counterparts and contain the conversive correlation in their semantic structure (e.g. to talk with, to quarrel with, to make friends with, to rhyme with, etc.).
E.g. Susan made friends with Paul Paul made friends with Susan. "Mine" rhymes with "thine" "Thine" rhymes with "mine".
II. Substantival conversives.
Substantival conversives are represented by a number of oppositions: e.g. producer - production/output, author - work/piece (of fiction, music, etc.), inventor - invention, teacher - student, proprietor - property, husband - wife, brother - sister, etc.
However, quantitative data show that the number of substantival conversives is rather limited. Moreover, the majority of them are verbal nouns of action or condition: X's domination over Y Y's submission toX.
Attention should be paid to the noun "cousin" which is a substantival conversive "by itself". It can be clearly illustrated by the example given by John Lyons [22, p. 497]: "NP1 is NP 2's cousin" implies and is implied by the sentence "NP2 is NP1's cousin ".
III. Adjectival conversives.
Adjectival conversives are represented by the adjectives used in the comparative degree: e.g. bigger - smaller, taller - shorter, heavier - lighter, more expensive - cheaper, younger - older, etc.
IV. Adverbial conversives (on the right - on the left).
V. Prepositional conversives (over - under, in front of - behind).
VI. Conjunctional conversives:
Conjunctional conversives often have two active valencies, in particular concessive, comparative conjunctions and conjunctions of reason.
E.g. The director fell ill and therefore the premiere was postponed. The premiere was postponed, as the director felt ill.
VII. Phraseological conversives:
E.g. She looked death in the face. - She was within a hair's breadth of death.
1.2.2. Classification of Semantic Conversives According to Their Semantic Features.
Lexical conversives can be classified according to their meaning. In accordance with the nature of such words, they express converse relations, correlation, interdependency, interaction, etc. between the corresponding objects and phenomena of reality. The following semantic categories are peculiar to the conversives:
1) "Transmission":
E.g. 1) He gave her a dictionary. - She took a dictionary from him. 2) She is selling her country-house to us. - We are buying a country-house from her.
2) "Acquisition / loss":
E.g. The word acquires a new meaning. - A new meaning of the word appears.
3) "Composition":
E.g. Three departments make up College of the Modem European Languages of the University. - College of the Modem European Languages of the University consists of three departments.
4) ''''Availability, possession":
E.g. The director has three deputies. - There are three deputies of the director.
5) "Filling the volume / contents":
E.g. The description of the technology took up the whole paragraph. - It took the whole paragraph to describe the technology.
6) "Submersion / absorption":
E.g. The ocean swallowed up the cutter. - The cutter submerged into the ocean.
7) "Co-position of the objects in the space and time":
E.g. 1) The dictionary is situated on the magazine. - The magazine is situated on the dictionary. 2) A follows B. - B precedes A.
8) "Dependence":
E.g. A determines B. - B depends on A.
It has already been pointed out that this division is rather arbitrary. Thus, L.Novikov differentiates between only 8 semantic categories inherent to conversives, whereas Yu. Apresyan points out 24 of them [14, p. 268 - 272]. It is not worth while mentioning all of them, as the rest of the conversives types are either infrequent, or derived from the main eight types described above. E.g. the linguist specifies such semantic categories as "definition" (e.g.