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Diachrony of Semantic Conversives in English - Дипломна робота

Ukrainian and others), and particularly - the English language.Besides, we have done the contextual analysis of selected conversives in the texts belonging to OE, ME and NE periods and examined their semantic structure (with subsequent determination of their dominants).
The practical application of the given research is possible in compiling a glossary of conversives; in teaching semantics, lexicology, translation and cognitive linguistics classes. The results of the research can be further verified in students' term-papers, B.A. and University Degree theses, seminars in semantic and historic linguistics and semasiology.
The main objective, problems solved and the methodology of the research stipulated the composition of the paper: Introduction, Part I "Semantic Conversives in Competence and Performance", Part II "The Overview of Semantic Changes", Part III "Diachrony of Semantic Conversives", Conclusions, Bibliography and Supplements.
Part I. Semantic Conversives in Competence and Performance.
1.1. The Overview of Semantic Conversives.
The conversive correlation unites the words that define the same situation from the points of view of the participants that are engaged in its different aspects. The examples of this correlation are the following pairs of words: "to win - to lose", "over - under", "to have - to belong (to)", "younger - older", etc.
Thus, conversives constitute members of pairs which are antonymic, though their meanings are interrelated and are often synonymic.
E.g. engl. "give - take" - "To provide or supply someone with something" vs. "To get something in your possession ";
"sell - buy" - "To give up, deliver, or exchange (property, goods, services, sc.) for money or its equivalent" vs. "To acquire by paying or agreeing to pay money or some equivalent".
(Cf. Latin "emo", gothic "niman", and German "nehmen" "to take" with Greek "nemo" "to distribute".)
I.A. Melchuk defines conversives as one of the linguistic functions [23, p.78]. Linguistic function (LF) describes the correlations that connect the words with their lexical correlatives. Lexical correlative is the paradigmatic variants and syntagmatic partners of the word. Namely, the LF f describes the correlation that determines (for a certain word or phrase X) such a multitude of the words or phrases {Yi} = f (X), that the following statement is true for any X1 and X2: if f(X1) and f (X2) do exist, between f (X') and X2 on one hand and /(X2) and X1 on the other hand the following semantic correlation always takes place:
'f (X1)' : 'X1' = 'f (X2)': 'X2', where
X (the keyword or keyphrase of the statement) is the argument of the lexical function f, and {Yi} is its expression.
The theory of conversion is abundant in algebraic formulae and expressions, as the notion of conversibility, or converse relation, first appeared in the higher algebra. Following statement is extremely important for studying of the conversives and sounds as follows: the binary relation R-1 is considered to be conversive to the relation R in the given multitude of the elements M, if bRa results from aR -1b, and vice versa. The definition illustrates that the direct and conversed relations possess the identical properties.
Conversive correlation (the expression of the "reverse relation" between the language units) as a linguistic phenomenon first claimed the linguists' attention in the syntax, particularly concerning the interrelation between a subject and an object. The expression of such relations can be clearly illustrated by the grammatical category of voice.
E.g. The workers build a house. A house is built by the workers.
This fact was also examined by John Lyons: "In the English language there exist passive constructions in which the "surface" subject is identical to the "oblique object" of the corresponding active sentence" [22, p.496]:
E.g. John's father gave him a book.
John was given a book by his father.
Such parallel constructions were later connected with broader universal correlations. Certain pairs of words were found to be in the same relations as the words over and about, bigger and smaller, older and younger, etc:
A precedes B B follows / succeeds A
The action in the first sentence is viewed from the point of view of A, whereas SB the second sentence it is viewed from the point of view of B. The famous English semasiologist John Lyons considers conversibility to be one of the varities of the lexical "opposition" [22, p.496]. He states that the opposition between the meanings is already acknowledged as one of the most important semantic correlations.
The lexical substitution of a word by its conversive is connected with the syntactic transformation, due to which the nominal groups (i.e. the subject and the object with the dependent words) are changing their places and certain "automatic changes" concerning the selection of a preposition or a declensional ending are made:
Peter sells the books to Andrew. Andrew buys the books from Peter.
Thus, during the process of conversion two main changes are done: 1) the preceding and the following elements are exchanging their places, and 2) the lexical unit that expresses the relations between the antecedent and the consequent is substituted by its conversive. The following formula will illustrate this process:
AR ( = X) B BR-1 ( = Y) A,
where X and Y are conversives that express the converse actions R and R-1, and A and B are the participants of the action. The necessary condition of the whole process is the complete denotative identity of the initial and converse statements:
E.g. Susan is Paul's wife. Paul is Susan's husband.
If we compare the conversives "older -younger", "to include - to be a part of", "teacher - student", "husband - wife", "to sell - to buy" with polysemantic words (and homonyms as well), we will notice what differentiates and what unites them. On one hand, conversives have different component structures, whereas both polysemantic words and homonyms are characterized by the similarity and continuity of their forms. On the other hand, the simultaneous usage in the discourse, or the so called "coocurrence in the text", is not typical of both conversives and polysemantic words. One of the conversives is used in the discourse, while another is staying apart, in the "system of possibilities". The latter is always implied due to the natural initerchange between the subject and the object that are connected by the conversive correlation:
E.g. "The Moon and Sixpence" is a work by W.S. Maugham" vs. 'W.S.Maugham is the author of "The Moon and Sixpence ".
The mutual substitution between the initial and conversed statements always takes part freely, as they are completely synonymic,