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Diachrony of Semantic Conversives in English - Дипломна робота

of (goods, property or rights) to another or others in exchange for money: he sold his house to them.
2. To effect such a transfer as an agent: he sold their house for them.
3. To offer for sale: he sells antiques.
4. To lead to the sale of: advertising sold a million copies.
5. To betray for a reward: he sold them to the police.
6. (pop.) To cheat, deceive: he was sold over the deal.
7. To offer something for sale: is she thinking of selling?
8. To find a buyer: these goods sell quickly.
3) Webster's New World Dictionary of American English (D3)
1. To give up, deliver, or exchange (property, goods, services, etc.) for money or its equivalent.
2. a) To have or offer regularly for sale; deal in: a store that sells hardware, to sell real estate;
b) To make or try to make sales: tosell chain stores.
3. a) To give up or deliver (a person) to his or her enemies or into slavery, bondage, etc;
b) To be a traitor to; betray.
4. To give up or dispose of (one's honor, one's vote, etc.) for profit or a dishonorable purpose.
5. To bring about, help in, or promote the sale of: television sells many products.
6. [Colloquial] a) To establish faith, confidence, or belief in: to sell oneself to the public.
b) To persuade (someone) of the value of something; convince (with on): sell him on the idea.
7. [Slang] To cheat, or dupe.
8. To exchange property, goods or services for money, etc.
9. To work or act as a salesman or salesclerk.
10. To be a popular item on the market; attract buyers.
11. To be sold (for or at), belts selling for $ 6.
12. [Colloquial] To be accepted, approved, etc.: a scheme that won't sell.
4) The Concise Oxford Dictionary (D4)
1. To make over or dispose of in exchange for money.
2. To cause to be sold: the author's name alone will sell many copies; keep stock of for sale or to be a dealer in: Do you sell candles?
3. To betray for money or other reward: sell one's country.
4. To offer dishonourably for money or other consideration, to make a matter of corrupt bargaining: sell justice, oneself, one's honour or chastity.
5. [Slang] To disappoint by not keeping engagement etc., by failing in some way, or by trickery: Sold again!
6. Advertise or publish merits of; to give (person) information on value of something: selling point.
7. (of goods) To find purchasers: will never sell; selling like wildfire, hot cakes; to have specified price: it sells at or for $ 5.
5) Collins COBUILD Dictionary (D5)
1. If you sell something, you let someone have it in return for an agreed sum of money: He is going to sell me his car.
2. If a shop sells a particular thing, it has it in the shop for people to buy: Do you sell flowers?
3. If something sells for a particular price, it is offered for sale at that price: These little books sell for 95 pence each.
4. If something sells, it is bought by the public: It's a nice design, but I 'm not sure if it will sell.
5. If a person or thing sell something, they cause people to want to buy it: Scandal and gossip is what sells newspapers.
6. If you sell an idea to someone or sell someone on an idea, you convince them that it is a good thing; an informal use: Let's hear your proposal. You 've got 10 minutes to sell it to me.
7. If you sell yourself, you present yourself in a way which makes people have confidence in you and your abilities; an informal use: You 've got to sell yourself at the interview.
8. If you sell your honour, principles, etc., you give these things up in order to get some personal profit or advantage: He sold his principles for a successful career.
9. If you sell someone down the river, you betray them for some personal profit or advantage; an informal expression: He was only too ready to sell his native country down the river.
Supplement 2.
The Semantic Structure of the Conversive "To Buy"
1) American Heritage Dictionary (Dl)
1. To acquire in exchange for money or its equivalent; purchase.
2. To be capable of purchasing: Certainly there are lots of things in life that money won't buy. (Ogden Nash).
3. To acquire by sacrifice, exchange or trade: wanted to buy love with gifts.
4. To bribe: tried to buy a judge.
5. [Slang] To accept the truth or feasibility of: The officers didn 't buy my lame excuse for speeding.
6. To purchase goods; act as a purchaser.
7. To believe in a person or movement or subscribe to an idea or theory: couldn 't buy into that brand of conservatism.
2) New Webster's Dictionary and Thesaurus (D2)
1. To acquire by paying money, purchase.
2. To obtain at some cost or sacrifice.
3. To win over by bribary or promises.
4. To be the price of: $ 4.000 will buy the machine.
3) Webster's New World Dictionary of American English (D3)
1. To get by paying or agreeing to pay money or some equivalent; purchase.
2. To get as by an exchange: buy victory with human lives.
3. To be the means of purchasing: all that money can buy.
4. To bribe or hire as by bribing.
5. [Slang] To accept as true, valid, practical, agreeable, etc.: I can't but this excuse.
6. [Archaic] Theological To redeem.
7. To buy something.
8. To buy merchandise as a buyer.
4) The Concise Oxford Dictionary (D4)
1. To obtain in exchange for money etc.
2. To serve to procure: money cannot buy happiness.
3. To get by some sacrifice: dearly bought.
4. To win over (person) by bribery etc.
5. [Slang] To accept, believe, be deceived by, suffer, receive by punishment, etc.: buy it, be killed.
5) Collins COBUILD Dictionary (D5)
1. If you buy something, you obtain it by paying money for it: She could not afford to buy it... Let me buy you a drink.
2. The amount that a certain sum of money buys is its value in terms of the quantity of goods or currency that can be obtained with it: The value of the pension in relation to the things that it buys.
3. If you buy freedom, time, etc., you offer something in return for your freedom, more time, etc.: They tried to buy time by saying that it would be ready next week.
4. If someone buys someone else, they get their help or services by bribing or corrupting them: I won't be bought that easily.
5. If you say "I'll buy that", you mean that you accept or believe what somebody has told you; an informal use: OK, I'll buy that... You've got no chance. He 'II never buy it!
Supplement 3.
Extracts from "Beowulf" with the Verb "to sell".