Recent analyses have been carried out on discourse in the classroom. Such analyses can be useful in finding out about the effectiveness of teaching methods and the types of teacher-student relationships.
In the theory of language system discourse is contrasted to text. Text can be defined (1) as a continuous piece of writing, such as the entirely of a letter, poem, or novel, conceived originally as aproduct like cloth on a loom; (2) the main written or printed part of a letter, manuscript, typescript, book, newspaper, etc., excluding any titles, headings, illustrations, notes, appendices, indexes, etc.; (3) the precise wording of anything written or printed: the definite text of a certain book (e.g. James Joyce's "Ulysses" or Geoffrey's Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales"); (4) a book prescribed as part of a course of study; a textbook: the prescribed texts for the exam; (5) in printing, typed as opposed to white space, illustrations, etc. Traditionally, text is a concept has suggested something fixed and with a quality of authority about it not unlike scripture. Electronic and laser technology, however, has made a concept more fluid.
3.2. Diachronic Aspects of Semantic Conversives Development.
Undoubtedly, the conversives have undergone certain semantic changes in the course of time. The semantic development of the conversives depends on the notions they defined in the history of early languages. E.g. the verbs with the meaning "to buy" originated from Indo-European roots *wes- and *kwri-. The *wes- root was registered in the Hittite, Greek, Latin and Indo-Iranian languages, lereas the *kwri- root is found in the Greek, Indo-Iranian, Celtic, Slavic and Baltic languages [16, p.97].
In the majority of the languages a certain of the two roots became dominant. However, in the Greek language they are used simultaneously. Gr. "oneomai" means "to have a wish to buy something" or "to haggle over the price of something", but the verb "priasthai" means "to actually purchase something by paying for it". This linguistic data enable us to claim that *wes- was used to denote a deal, whereas *kwri- denoted a purchase. At the same time two different moments of the same action can be differentiated: the payment is done after the purchase and the mutual agreement about the price.
The same thing can be told about the semantic development of the conversive pair "to give : to take". The *do- root meant "to give" in almost all the Indo-European languages. However, in the Hittite language the *da- root had the meaning of "to take" and the *pai- root had the meaning of "to give". The data suggest that the Hettite *da- "to take" was only a variant of the meaning "to give". Similarly, the meaning of the Gothic "niman" "to take" (German "nehmen") is correlated to the meaning of the Greek "nemo" "to distribute".
The same notion often received a certain differentiation based on which side of action it described. Indeed, in some languages the verb "to sell" is a variant of "to buy" (German kaufen "to buy" vs. verkaufen "to sell"), whereas in others the meanings of the given verbs depends on the grammatical form they are used in or on the context.
The semantic conversives illustrate the linguistic phenomenon called "the glide of meaning", which is a kind of semantic transition. For example, the meaning of Modern English "give" includes the meaning "to take to" ("to take something in order to give to somebody"), i.e. there is a certain connection between the converse meanings [16, p.70].
From the point of view of conversibility, it is also interesting to examine the words with the meaning of "to marry" in different Indo-European languages [20, p. 494]. The English verb "to marry" is symmetric, i.e. the statement "NP1 married NP2" implies and is implied by the sentence "NP2 married NP1" (the transitive verb "to marry" should be distinguished from the intransitive one, as in the sentence "The priest married them", or "They were married by the priest").
In some languages, particularly, Latin and Ukrainian, two different conversive verbs (or the verbal combinations) are found.
nubere - "to marry" (in respect to a female), but
in matrimonium ducere ("to lead to the altar") - in respect to a male.
Greek also has some pecularities of the use of the above-mentioned verbs: gamein in the active form of the verb) means "to marry" (in respect to a male), the same verb in the passive or middle voice is used in respect to a woman (the approximate English equivalents would be "John married Jane ", but "Jane was married by John ", or "Jane got herself married to John ").
These three variants illustrate the ways in which the same relation between people or objects can be expressed in the language:
1) by means of a symmetric "predicator" (here - "to marry");,
2) by means of lexically separate "predicators" ("nubere" vs. "in matrimonium ducere ");
3) by means of "grammarization" of the potential assymetry in accordance with syntactic abilities of the language (gamein).
Diachronically, a lot of terms expressing kinship and social status became conversives, e.g. Engl. "husband - wife", "brother - sister", "cousin - cousin" (cf. the Ukrainian "двоюрідний брат - двоюрідна cecmpa").
3.3. Diachrony of the Conversive Pairs "to give : to take" and "to sell : to buy".
3.3.1. Semantic Structure of the Old English "?yfan" and the Middle English "yiven".
The OE "?yfan" (German geben, Old Norse gefa, Gothic giban) was a strong verb of the 5th class. The total number of 379 realizations of the given verb in the context was registered during the textual analysis of the texts, with "Beowulf" possessing the highest percentage of the verb's usage:
Table 1. The Diachrony of the Verb "to give" in the English Language.
№ Verb Text Period Number Percentage (of the word stock)
1 ?yfan "Beowulf" OE 39 0,217 %
2 sellan "Beowulf" OE 25 0,139 %
3 yiven "The Canterbury Tales" ME 198 0,125 %
4 give "Don Juan" NE 117 0,092 %
Semantically, the OE "?yfan" differs a little from the NE "give" denoting the same dominant meaning of providing somebody with something. However the semantics of this conversive can give us a hint of some older traditions of the Germanic tribes: often it is used in regard to a king or lord giving rings or gold to his servants and vassals. Thus, in OE it acquires an additional connotation of a gift or a present, e.g.:
OE …ne ?urh inwitsearo ?fre gem?nden
?eah hie hira beaggyfen banan folgedon
?eodenlease, ?a him swa ge?earfod w?s… [2, p. 26].
NE …or with malice of mind bemoan