Реферат на тему:
I. About Homesexuality in General
2. The Cases of Sexual Orientation.
3. Attitudes Toward Homosexuality.
II. Fay and Lesbian Families.
1. Fay and Lesbian Parents.
a) How Many Are Out There?
b) Relevant Issues.
c) Divorced Lesbian Mothers and Fay Fathers.
d) Lesbian and Fay Men Choosing Parent-hood.
2. The Children of Fay and Lesbian Parents.
a) Tender and Sexual Orientation.
b) Personal Development.
c) Social Relationships.
d) Children Born to Lesbian Mothers.
3. Implications for Counselors.
I. About Homesexuality in General.
Homosexuality is sexual activity between individuals of the same sex. Both men and women may be considered homosexual. Female homosexuals often call themselves lesbians. Male homosexuals sometimes refer to themselves as gay. Scientists estimate that 1 to 10 percent of men and women in the United States feel sexually attracted primarily to members of their own sex.
Some people are not entirely homosexual or entirely heterosexual (sexually attracted only to the opposite sex). Some people with homosexual experiences or tendencies marry individuals of the opposite sex and have children. Many people who identify themselves as heterosexuals have participated in some kind of homosexual activity at some time in their lives. People who are strongly attracted to members of both sexes are called bisexuals.
It is fairly common for young boys - and, less frequently, for young girls - to masturbate (handle or rub their sex organs). Boys may stimulate each other in this way, and so may girls. Such activity rarely indicates or develops into a homosexual orientation. In most cases, the young people are simply exploring their own sexual development. See Sex (Puberty).
Some homosexual behavior results from the unavailability of partners of the opposite sex and may not reflect a homosexual interest that continues once partners of the opposite sex become available. Thus, a person who spends long periods separated from the opposite sex may turn to members of his or her own sex for sexual partners. For example, such a situation may occur in prison.
Many homosexuals hide their homosexuality. Others are more open about it. Many join gay or lesbian groups. Sometimes two homosexuals establish a long-term relationship that is similar to marriage.
2. The causes of sexual orientation are not fully understood. Some experts believe all people are born with a bisexual potential. But for a majority of people, either homosexuality or heterosexuality becomes their sexual orientation.
Most experts feel that a number of different factors can influence the direction of one's sexual orientation. Some researchers have suggested that sexual orientation results chiefly from biological factors. These may include a specific gene inherited from a parent or the effect of hormones in the mother's womb on the developing brain of a fetus. Other researchers believe a person's sexual orientation is associated primarily with social and psychological factors. For example, according to one theory, children can learn through pleasurable sexual experiences to become increasingly attracted to either of the sexes or to both sexes.
Homosexuality is more comfortable than heterosexuality formany men and women. Some people try to change their sexual orientation through psychiatric treatment. However, learning to manage and appreciate one's feelings and life style may be a more realistic goal for people.
3. Attitudes toward homosexuality.
Throughout history, homosexuality has existed in most societies. Various cultures have differed in their attitudes toward it. For example, some ancient Greeks not only accepted homosexuality but considered it to be an ideal relationship -perhaps because ancient Greek men believed that only men could fulfill the role of true friend and lover. Other cultures have permitted homosexuality but have not encouraged it. Still others have forbidden it, and some have punished homosexuals.
Today, many people in most Western countries consider homosexuality immoral or unnatural. Many states of the United States prohibit homosexual acts.
Many social scientists oppose laws that prohibit homosexuality and provide punishment for it. These scientists believe that homosexuals are treated unfairly for ways of life that do not directly affect others. Many nations, including Canada, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, have no laws against homosexual actions between consenting adults.
In 1961, Illinois became the first U.S. state to abolish its laws against homosexual acts. Since the 1960's, homosexual groups - sometimes called gay activist groups - have urged society to adopt more tolerant attitudes. As a result of the movement, since 1970, several U.S. states and a number of U.S. and Canadian cities have passed laws banning discrimination against homosexuals in employment, housing, and in other ways.
During the 1980's, however, the gay rights movement suffered a setback as an epidemic of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) swept the United States, Canada, and many other nations. This disease, which was first identified in 1981 in the United States, cripples the body's immune system and is usually fatal. In the United States and Canada, the disease first occurred mainly among homosexual men. Although AIDS also occurs among - and is transmitted by - heterosexual men and women, many people blamed homosexuals for the spread of the disease. Many homosexuals have feared more discrimination as a result of the AIDS crisis. See AIDS.
In 1986, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that private acts of homosexuality are not protected under the Constitution. This ruling upheld the constitutionality of state laws that make private acts of homosexuality criminal offenses. Such laws are rarely enforced by officials, but gay leaders believe that the laws express society's disapproval of homosexuality.
II. Fey and Lesbian Families.
1. Fay and Lesbian Parents
a) How Many Are Out There?
Unfortunately, accurate statistics regarding the numbers of families headed by gay man and lesbian in our culture are difficult to determine. Due to fear of discrimination in one or more aspects of their lives, many gay men and lesbians have their own children in some cases (Heggins, 1989). Patterson (2000) noted that it is especially difficult to locate gay and lesbian parents due to fears that they would lose custody and/or visitation rights by disclosing their sex orientation. Regardless of these difficulties, some board