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Symbolism (arts) - Реферат

aftermath in literature.
Maurice Maeterlinck was another Symbolist playwright; his theatrical output includes both Pell?as and Melisande, and L'Oiseau Bleu ("The Blue Bird"), another theatrical fantasy. The later works of the Russian playwright Anton Chekhov have been identified as being deeply influenced by Symbolist pessimism. Under Symbolist influence, the Russian actor and director Vsevolod Meyerhold developed a balletic theory of acting in contrast to Konstantin Stanislavski's system, which focused on learning gestures and movements as a way of expressing outward emotion. Meyerhold's m ethod was influential in early motion pictures, and especially on the works of Sergei Eisenstein.
Aftermath
In the English speaking world, the closest counterpart to Symbolism was Aestheticism; the Pre-Raphaelites, also, were contemporaries of the earlier Symbolists, and have much in common with them. Symbolism had a significant influence on Modernism and its traces can be seen in a number of modernist artists, including T. S. Eliot, Wallace Stevens, Conrad Aiken, Hart Crane, and William Butler Yeats in the anglophone tradition and Rub?n Dar?o in Hispanic letters. The early poems of Guillaume Apollinaire have strong affinities with Symbolism.
Edmund Wilson's 1931 study Axel's Castle focuses on the continuity with Symbolism and a number of important writers of the early twentieth century, with a particular focus on Yeats, Eliot, Paul Val?ry, Marcel Proust, James Joyce, and Gertrude Stein. Wilson concluded that the Symbolists represented a dreaming retreat into:
. . .things that are dying-the whole belle-lettristic tradition of Renaissance culture perhaps, compelled to specialize more and more, more and mor e driven in on itself, as industrialism and democratic education have come to press it closer and closer.
Russian symbolist painters included Mikhail Vrubel (1856-1910).
As the movement was losing its forward movement in France, after the turn of the twentieth century it became a major force in Russian poetry. The Russian Symbolist movement, steeped in the Eastern Orthodoxy and the religious doctrines of Vladimir Solovyov, had little in common with the French movement of the same name. It was the starting point of the careers of several major poets such as Alexander Blok, Andrei Bely, and Marina Tsvetaeva. Bely's novel Petersburg (1912) is considered the greatest monument of Russian symbolist prose.
In Romania, Symbolists directly influenced by French poetry were first influential in the 1880s, when Alexandru Macedonski reunited a group of young poets around his magazine Literatorul. Polemicizing with the established Junimea and overshadowed by the influence of Mihai Eminescu, Symbolism was recovered as an inspiration in the 1910s, when it was voiced in the works of Tudor Arghezi, Ion Minulescu, George Bacovia, Ion Barbu, and Tudor Vianu, and held in esteem by the modernist magazine Sbur?torul.
The Symbolist painters were an important influence on expressionism and surrealism in painting, two movements which descend directly from Symbolism proper. The harlequins, paupers, and clowns of Pablo Picasso's "Blue Period" show the influence of Symbolism, and especially of Puvis de Chavannes. In Belgium, where Symbolism had penetrated deeply, so much so that it came to be thou ght of as a n ational style, the static strangeness of painters like Ren? Magritte can be seen as a direct continuation of Symbolism. The work of some Symbolist visual artists directly impacted the curvilinear forms of art nouveau.
Many early motion pictures, also, contain a good deal of Symbolist visual imagery and themes in their staging, set designs, and imagery. The films of German Expressionism owe a great deal to Symbolist imagery. The virginal "good girls" seen in the films of D. W. Griffith, and the silent movie "bad girls" portrayed by Theda Bara, both show the continuing influence of Symbolist imagery, as do the Babylonian scenes from Griffith's Intolerance. Symbolist imagery lived on longest in the horror film; as late as 1932, a horror film such as Carl Theodor Dreyer's Vampyr shows the obvious influence of Symbolist imagery; parts of the film resemble tableau vivant re-creations of the early paintings of Edvard Munch.
Symbolists
Precursors
" Charles Baudelaire (1821-67)
" Isidore Ducasse, comte de Lautr?amont (1846-70)
" G?rard de Nerval (1808-55)
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Authors
" Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam (1838-89)
" St?phane Mallarm? (1842-98)
" Paul Verlaine (1844-96)
" Arthur Rimbaud (1854-91)
" Georges Rodenbach (1855-98)
" Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916)
" Jean Mor?as (1856-1910)
" Albert Samain (1858-1900)
" R?my de Gourmont (1858-1915)
" Gustave Kahn (1859-1936)
" Albert Giraud (1860-1929)
" Jules Laforgue (1860-87)
" Paul Adam (1862-1920)
" Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949)
" Stuart Merrill (1863-1915)
" Adolphe Rett? (1863-1930)
" Francis Viel?-Griffin (1863-1937)
" Henri de R?gnier (1864-1936)
" Albert Aurier (1865-1892)
" Albert Mockel (1866-1945)
" Paul Val?ry (1871-1945)
" Ren?e Vivien (1877-1909)
" Emile Nelligan (1879-1941)
" Andrei Bely (1880-1934)
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Influence in English literature
English language authors that influenced, or were influenced by Symbolism include:
" Edgar Allan Poe (1809-49)
" William Blake (1757-1827)
" Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82)
" Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909)
" Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)
" Arthur Symons (1865-1945)
" John Gra y (1866-1934)
" Ernest Dowson (1867-1900)
" Eric Stenbock (1860-95)
" T. S. Eliot (1888-1965)
" William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)
" Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)
" Ezra Pound (1885-1972)
" Edith Sitwell (1887-1964)
" Conrad Aiken (1889-1973)
" Clark Ashton Smith (1893-1961)
" Hart Crane (1899-1932)
See also: Symbolist painters
Symbolist painters
" William Blake - (1757-1827)
" George Frederic Watts - (1817-1904)
" Arnold B?cklin - (1827-1901)
" Pierre Puvis de Chavannes - (1824-1898)
" Henri Fantin-Latour (1836 - 1904)
" Fernand Khnopff - (1858-1921)
" Gustav Klimt - (1862-1918)
" Gustave Moreau - (1826-1898)
" Edvard Munch - (1863-1944)
" Odilon Redon - (1840-1916)
" F?licien Rops - (1855-1898)
" Jan Toorop - (1858-1928)
" Mikhail Vrubel (1856-1910)
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