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Leni Riefenstahl - Реферат

and WWII scholars questioning how any one could appear at state dinners with top Nazi officials (eating at the high table with them, no less) and be completely unaware of what politics they were supporting. Furthering the connection, they cite the fact that Riefenstahl sent a celebratory telegram to Hitler after his invasion of France, "Your deeds exceed the power of human imagination. They are without equal in the history of mankind. How can we ever thank you?" [1].
Lastly, they detail interviews with actual Gypsy survivors of the Holocaust, who refute Riefensthal's claims that the concentration camp victims she used for filming were not killed [2]
The documentary comes to the conclusion that Riefenstahl suffered from a deep denial of her actual culpability, to the point that she even began to believe her own lies regarding her innocence.
Post War Career, Legacy and Personal Life
Riefenstahl attempted to make films after the war but each attempt was met with resistance, protests, sharp criticisms and an inability to secure funding. In 1944, she married Peter Jacob, whom she later divorced, and in the 1960s took a man, Horst Kettner, who was forty years her junior. He remained her faithful companion to the end of her life. She became a photographer and was later the first to photograph rock star Mick Jagger and his wife Bianca as a couple holding hands after they were married, as they were both admirers. Jagger told Riefenstahl he had seen Triumph of the Will at least 15 times.
Later, embracing a cult of "primitivism", she became interested in the Nuba tribe in Sudan. Her books with photographs of the tribe were published in 1974 and 1976. She survived a helicopter crash in the Sudan in 2000.
In her late 70s, Riefenstahl lied about her age to get certified for scuba diving and started a career in underwater photography. She released a new film titled Impressionen unter Wasser (Underwater Impressions), an idealized documentary on life in the oceans, on her 100th birthday - August 22, 2002.
In October 2002, German authorities decided to drop a case against her for Holocaust denial, citing her age and possible dementia. She had allegedly falsely claimed that "every one" of the Roma people which had been drawn from a concentration camp to appear in her film Tiefland had survived the war. A Gypsy group had filed the case, claiming she used them for the film and sent them back when she no longer needed them. In addition to Riefenstahl having signed a withdrawal of her claim, the prosecutor cited Riefenstahl's considerable age as a reason for dropping further action.
Leni Riefenstahl died in her sleep on September 8, 2003, at her home in P?cking, Germany a few weeks after her 101st birthday. She had been suffering from cancer. In her obituaries Riefenstahl was said to be the last famous figure of Germany's Nazi era to die.
Riefenstahl is renowned in film history for developing new aesthetics in film, especially in relation to nude bodies. While the propaganda value of her early films repels many, their aesthetics are cited by many filmmakers as outstanding.
Riefenstahl in The Blue Light, 1931
" Wege zu Kraft und Sch?nheit - Ein Film ?ber moderne K?rperkultur (Ways to Strength and Beauty, 1926)
" Der Heilige Berg (The Holy Mountain, 1926)
" Der Gro?e Sprung (The Great Leap, 1927)
" Das Schicksal derer von Habsburg (The Destiny of the Habsburgs, 1928)
" Der Wei?e H?lle vom Piz Pal? (The White Hell of Pitz Palu, 1929)
" St?rme ?ber dem Mont Blanc (Storm Over Mont Blanc, 1930)
" Der Wei?e Rausch (The White Flame, 1931)
" Das Blaue Licht (The Blue Light, 1932)
" SOS Eisberg (SOS Iceberg, 1933)
" Tiefland (Lowlands, 1954)
" Das Blaue Licht (The Blue Light, 1932)
" Der Sieg des Glaubens (Victory of Faith, 1933)
" Triumph des Willens (Triumph of the Will 1934)
" Tag der Freiheit - Unsere Wehrmacht (Day of Freedom, 1935)
" Olympia (Part 1 known as Festival of the Nations, Part 2 as Festival of Beauty, 1938)
" Tiefland (Lowlands, 1954)
" Impressionen unter Wasser (Underwater Impressions, 2002)
" The Last of the Nuba (Harper, 1974; St. Martin's Press, 1995, ISBN 0-312-13642-0)
" The People of Kau (Harper, 1976; St. Martin's Press reprint edition, 1997, ISBN 0-312-16963-9)
" Vanishing Africa (Harmony 1st American edition, 1988, ISBN 0-517-54914-X)
" Africa (Taschen, 2002, ISBN 3-8228-1616-7)
" Riefenstahl Olympia (Taschen, 2002, ISBN 3-8228-1945-X)
" Leni Riefenstahl by Leni Riefenstahl, autobiography (Picador Reprint edition, 1995, ISBN 0-312-11926-7)
" Coral Gardens by Leni Riefenstahl (Harpercollins 1st U.S. edition, 1978, ISBN 0-06-013591-3)
First editions, they are all in German:
" Kampf in Schnee und Eis (Leipzig, 1933)
" Hinter den Kulissen des Reichsparteitags-Films (M?nchen, 1935)
" Sch?nheit im olympischen Kampf (Berlin, 1937)
" Die Nuba (M?nchen, 1973)
" Die Nuba von Kau (M?nchen, 1976)
" Koralleng?rten (M?nchen, 1978)
" Mein Afrika (M?nchen, 1982)
" Memoiren (M?nchen, 1987)
" Wunder unter Wasser (M?nchen, 1990)
1. ^ See also obituary and other [1]
2. ^ See also Gypsies' Fate Haunts Film Muse of Hitler, The Guardian, August 17, 2002.
" Leni Riefenstahl Bibliography (via UC Berkeley)
" http://users.skynet.be/deneulin/books.html (see also articles section on that page)
" The Wonderful, Horrible Life of Leni Riefenstahl, documentary film directed by Ray M?ller (1994)
" Leni Riefenstahl: The fallen film goddess by Glenn B. Infield (Crowell, 1976, ISBN 0-690-01167-9)
" Leni Riefenstahl: The Seduction of Genius by Rainer Rother, translated by Martin H. Bott (Continuum International Publishing Group reprint edition, 2003, ISBN 0-8264-7023-8)
" The Films of Leni Riefenstahl by David B. Hinton (Scarecrow Press 3rd edition, 2000, ISBN 1-57886-009-1)
" Leni Riefenstahl: Five Lives by Angelika Taschen (Taschen, 2000, ISBN 3-8228-6216-9)
" Das Blaue Licht: The Art of Leni Riefenstahl Unofficial biographical website endorsed by the Riefenstahl Estate
" Her propaganda marches on, An analysis of Victory of Faith and Triumph ofthe Will.
" Homepage of Leni Riefenstahl
" www.riefenstahl.org - a fanpage, claims the "most accurate and detailed Leni Riefenstahl filmography ... available anywhere."
" Leni Riefenstahl at the Internet Movie Database
" Collection of Internet Resources: Leni Riefenstahl
" Women's History collection
" "Leni Riefenstahl: propagandist for the Third Reich by Stefan Steinberg, on World Socialist Web Site published by the Trotskyist International Committee of the Fourth International
" "Fascinating Fascism", a critical 1974 essay by Susan Sontag (out of Under the Sign of Saturn)
" ""Wherever you may run, you cannot escape him": Leni Riefenstahl's Self-Reflection and Romantic Transcendence of Nazism in Tieflandby Robert von Dassanowsky
" Robert von Dassanowsky: Tiefland/Titanic analysis
" Biography at The German-Hollywood Connection
" (a list of documentaries about and or with Leni Riefenstahl 1965-2004)
" Leni Riefenstahl: Film Maker Extraordinaire or Nazi Stooge? National Centre for History Education - Australia