Практика перекладу: Механізм фінансування окремих робіт
MODEL OF BEST PRACTICE:
"ACTIVITY BASED FUNDING"
"...Assistance to creation of the infrastructure to small business development..."
From the National Programme to Support Small Entrepreneurship Development in Ukraine
A fundamental issue facing any support mecha-nism for support of enterprise is how to fund it. In most instances there are typically two main sources of funds that may be available: internally generated revenues (from selling products and services to clients); and external funds (through grants, loans, subsidies etc. of governmental bodies or donor organizations).
An important principle underpinning much gov-ernmental or donor support is that organizations should evolve and move towards sustainability over time. A consequence of this is that the ratio between the proportion of overall funding contributed by internally- and externally generated funding will typically move towards an increasing reliance on self-generated internal sources of funding on the part of an enterprise support organization. Financing mechanisms therefore need to be designed to explicitly address this requirement. Activity Based Funding is one such method that can be used. It is a financing concept and mechanism that was developed for the Ukrainian Network of Agencies for Development of Enterprise (ADEs).
The development of the Ukrainian Network of Agencies for Development of Enterprise (ADEs) faced the problem of how new agencies could best be set up and financed as it sought to achieve a rapid geographic expansion. Whilst the first of the ADEs were traditional, fully donor funded business support centers, encouragement of small consultancy practices to join the network led to all its members, including the early business centers, becoming subject to a system of payment for activities undertaken - Activity Based Funding.
Instead of fully financing an Agency, ABF was linked directly to mutually agreed types and volumes of activities undertaken by each agency. Payment was made on the basis of the agreed level of activities being met (but not exceeded) given that all agreed activities (e.g. type of course, target group, planned output etc) were met.
The merits of this funding system are that activities and outputs are clearly linked. Further it is a system that allows for funding of external client delivery, as well as internal organizational development. One of the great advantages is that it offered great flexibility in funding activities in ADEs.
As the network matured it has developed a shared portfolio of services, with each individual agency securing its own SME customer base. Over time the ABF concept has been modified, eventually moving to Fixed Price Contracting.
CHOICE OF SOLUTION
In principle there were 3 different types of financing mechanisms used for ADEs
1. Full funding - by the funding donor - of me
activities of an ADE (usually for two - three
months in the very initial stages of the ADE).
2. Activity Based Funding (ABF), whereby the
funding donor guaranteed that it would fund a
certain amount of the activities proposed by
the ADEs. This being conditional on all agreed
activities (type of course, target group, planned
output and so forth) of project planning, are
fulfilled. In this funding form ADEs have a
decision making input.
3. Fixed Priced Contracting (FPC) basically
offered the ADEs a contract, which identified
network-wide core SME activities that should
be fulfilled in order to receive funding. FPC
gives little room for decision-making input.
The ABF overall objective is to further the eco-nomic growth in Ukraine through the continued support to the development of the SME sector and the vehicles for such support.
This Ukrainian SME best practice was funded by the European Union. The consultancy company implementing it was GFA Management of Germany. EU consultants were Philip Santens and Kevin Thorpe, the team leader was Bruce Harris.
The main purposes in implementing the ABF Model were to:
o Establish an Association Resource Centre
(ARC) that will guide, serve and monitor the
Tacis-funded SME support services and pro-
actively disseminate the expertise developed
throughout the local Ukrainian SME commu-nity;
o Maintain and develop the project's Ukrainian
contractors' performance in terms of number
of clients served, the quality of the services
delivered, and their cost effectiveness ;поши-
рювати фінансовані Програмою Tacis по
слуги МСП на інші регіони України;
o Geographically extend the Tacis-funded SME
services to other regions of Ukraine;
o Develop the current ADE Network into a
broad based Association of SME Support
o Provide targeted financial and technical sup
port to the Business Communication Centre's
(BCC) business match-making activities.
Direct Target Groups are: Ukrainian SMEs, business start-ups and foreign companies interested in developing ties with local enterprises.
Indirect Target Groups: Management and staff of the existing and new Ukrainian contractors, local Ukrainian governmental agencies and institutions involved in SME support and international donor programmes and projects.
o The establishment, development and operation
of an Association Resource Centre (ARC).
o The continuation of the Activity-Based
Funding (ABF) financing mechanism and the
development of ABF into the Fixed Price
Contracting (FPC) Business Development
o Service Providers' (BDS) financing mechanism.
o The geographic expansion of the SME sup
port services delivered through the Tacis
o Project to new regions of Ukraine currently
not covered by the Project.
o The creation and development of a broad-
based ADE Association.
o The support to the activities undertaken by
the Business Communication Centre (BCC).
The ABF Turnkey Implementation guide was prepared, that consists of:
o Conditions of Funding Agreements;
o General obligations of the Network member;
o Action Plan;
o Schedule of Funding Agreement;
o Statement of Commitment;
o Changes to Action Plan:
The Action Plan Review and Planning Report
o Reporting Guidelines for Enterprise Network members.
The Funding Agreement forms a well-founded basis for:
o The support of the development of me SME sector in Ukraine by implementing a specific set of XXX activity-funded SME support services through the Network Member.
o The regulation of all administrative and legal
interactions between the EN PMU and the
o The assistance in developingthe Network
Member's capacity as a