... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Англійські неологізми - Дипломна робота

Англійські неологізми - Дипломна робота

already existent neutral words. The amount of neologisms on different topical groups depends on the development intensity of the corresponding kinds of people's activity and on the degree of changes in the way of life of the society. It is worth mentioning that for the last time it gets more complicated to separate exactly terminological and current vocabulary as the wide usage of everyday technique is followed by the penetration of the great amount of the technical words in the everyday vocabulary. Popular-science TV-programs and articles of media also help the appearance of diffusion of words into the everyday colloquial speech. In general, according to the laws of language development there exist mechanisms which regulate the addition and anewing of the vocabulary thanks to the semantical innovations, supporting them in corresponding activity. Some of the new meanings of the old words become an integral part of the language, the others can find the resistance in the language usage.
Description of the software product
One of the basic stages of linguistic modelling of the text is the creation of a dictionary. In the ABBYY Lingvo 8.0 system two types of dictionaries intended for the user are foreseen. For "operative work" user dictionaries that can be enriched, are used (that is the dictionaries created by the user directly during the work with ABBYY Lingvo 8.0). Dictionaries of the other type, that are in rich positions of marking (similar to the systematical dictionaries) it can be created by the compiler of the DSL language but they support the operative addition in the session with ABBYY Lingvo 8.0
Beginning with the Lingvo 6.0 version, the compiler of the DSL language is included in the complement of the system (Dictionary Specification Language). The Compiler Dslcomp.exe is in the root directory Lingvo. The compiler allows to create the dictionaries which can be put on the shelf of Your Lingvo system, to pass for the use to your colleagues and friends or even to offer the whole concord of Lingvo users. Thus the authors of user dictionaries have at their disposal the same positions of formatting the cards, as well as the creators of the Lingvo system dictionaries.
Unlike those dictionaries, which it is possible to create operatively and fill up directly from the Lingvo system, the dictionary in the DSL language is created in an external text processor, and then is compiled.
The initial text of the dictionary must be written as simple text file. The text in the dictionary is needed to be saved in ANSI-code or as Unicode Text, and then to change the expression of the file on dsl (for example, in Microsoft Explorer).
The dictionary in the DSL language is the sequence of cards. Each card consists of the title (title word or combination of words) and the text of the card. At the use of the dictionary in the LINGVO system the title is shown in the List of Title Words, and the text of the card (together with the title) is given out in the window of the card as a translation or interpretation.
A card in the DSL language has such structure:
1. A word - title. It is written from the first position of a new line. In the title of the card there can be the alphabetical symbols of English and Ukrainian languages, the figures gap, hyphen, '," and {} - it is used for the distinguishing in the title of the part, that is not assorted.
2. The body of the card. It is written down from the next line after a title. Every line in it must retreat from the first position at one gap or tabulation at least. The body of the card reaches the title of the next card (the feature of it is the symbol in the first position, different from the gap or tabulation) or to the end of the file.
The following areas can be selected in the card:
" labels (by request);
" translation section;
" comment section (by request);
" example section (by request);
" pictures or sound (by request);
" references to web-pages (by request).
If the body of the card is very long, it is possible to decrease the amount of the information, that is simultaneously represented on the screen. For this purpose the part of the card (for example, word combination with the word - title) is marked as the second reflection and is shown, only if the user wishes it. As the second reflection any fragment of the card can be set (except of the title); the amount of such fragments also can be free. Presently the Lingvo shell at the show of the second reflection uses the type font of the other color.
To mark a part of a card as shown only in full translation mode:
" The beginning of the text is marked with the "[*]" tag, the end - "[/*]" tag.
You can insert one or several blank lines between the body of one card and the heading of the next one as it facilitates the reading of the source dictionary text. Entries can be entered in any order you want (violating, for example, the alphabetical order). You cannot enter two different entries with the same heading. This restriction doesn't apply toheadings varying in case (you can have, for example, a card cardigan and a card Cardigan, or even a card caRdigan).
The title of the card can be not only a word but also the word combination. Between the words in such word combination there can be any number of gaps. However at the reflection of the dictionary they are substituted by one gap. The gap between words is taken into account at sorting.
The presence of a few titles at one card is assumed. In this case all titles (each - from the first position of a new line) are written down first, and then - the body of card according to the given above rules. All titles are shown in the List of Words-Titles (each - on its place), and at addressing to each of them the body of card is given out.
The List of the Word-Titles can simultaneously contain words in different languages: they can be the titles of the cards, and the titles of the subcards at the same time. At sorting for the letters of every language a "natural lexicographic order" is used, and all Ukrainian (Russian) letters are considered those, that go after all English ones.
Its unassorted part can be certain in the title. Its basic assignment is pointing on the characteristic models of the compatibility of word-title. The unassorted part is not shown in the List of Words-Titles, it is not taken into account at sorting and comparing words. It means that the attribution to a title-word of the unassorted part does not create a new word of the title and, consequently, can not be used for the creation of a new card or subcard with the modified title.
The inlaid subcard can be determinated in the body of the card. Usually the translation or interpretation of the most common expressions and combinations of words, in which the word-title is used, is given in it. As well as the card, the inlaid subcard has the title and the body. At giving out on the screen of the basic card only the title of the inlaid subcard is shown in it. It is distinguished by the colour. At the addressing to such title the other card with the body and the title of the inlaid card is