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Англійські неологізми - Дипломна робота

of lacks: a) more or less clear determination of concept of differentiating lexico-semantical sings, that assumes subjectivism at the division of words on lexico-grammatical classes is absent; b) the mechanism of semantic transformations is not taken into consideration, as a result some innovations, got by an identical way can be set in the digit of words, and others - in the digit of meanings; c) the durability of the semantic communication which can be between the meaning of polysemantic word, considerably stronger than lexico-grammatical sings is not taken into account.
Most researches adhere to the point of view, that in all cases, where the semantic connection between the meanings of polysemantic word is kept, if should be considered as word-lexeme, that contains the certain amount of lexico-semantical variants (or meanings). It is up to the status of the semantic new formations too, which are the lexico-semantical variants of a word.
On the whole, the semantic method of nomination belongs to those phenomena in the language, which are not considerd to synonymous interpretation. It is obviously explained that the talk is about semantic processes which belong to semasiology and onomasiology at the same time.
The formation of homonyms in their classic understanding is rather rare phenomenon, if to examine the word building for the short span of time. It is possible to give such examples of neologisms: to zap - to make more powerful, exciting or lively; to revitalize; to spice or pep up, while the previous meaning of the word 1) to kill; 2) to break; 3) to take aback; to veg - to pass the time in vacuous inactivity, while the first meaning "to veg" - "to vegetate"; rock - a crystallized form of cocaine which is smoked for its stimulating effects, where the initial meaning of the word was: 1) a cliff, a mountain; 2) a stone; 3) swinging; 4) music style; 5) slang - money.
Most semantic neologisms are new lexico-semantical variants of words that formed on the basis of already existent lexical units and are complemented with the lexico-semantical variants of these words. As the elements of the difficult polysemantic structure have hierarchical interdependence, at the analysis of neologisms it is necessary to distinguish the initial meanings in relation to which semantic innovations are derivative. But in the process of semantic nomination not always the main (invariant) meaning is primary. Two basic types of formation of lexico-semantical variants are considered in this connection: 1) the chain one, when the last meaning of the polysemantic word with the semantic structure of subsequent increases comes forward in quality of an initial word; 2) radial, when the basic meaning serves at the initial for all subsequent innovations between which there appears the relation of parallelism.
The example of semantical innovation by a chain method can be neologism "space" (the freedom to think, act, or be oneself) that is coined as a result of the successive evolution of meanings which follow from each other: 1) unused or unfilled gap or area between two or more objects or points; 2) unoccupied area or place available for use; 3) large area (esp. of land not built on); 4) continuous expanse in which all things exist and move; 5) universe beyond the earth's atmosphere in which all other planet and stars exist, that is "distance between two objects" - "unoccupied territory" - "large area (not built up)" - "continuous space" - "freedom (space) for thought and actions".
The example of the radial method can be the coinage of neologism "mule" (a person who acts as a courier for illegal drugs). It arose up parallel with such meanings as: 1) animal that is the offspring of a donkey and horse, used for carrying load and noted for its stubbornness; 2) stubborn person, independent of each other, but combined with the basic meaning "the creature for moving the load".
In the basis of semantical nomination the formal-logical relations are fixed between concepts, which represent certain associations able to appear in a man's consciousness. For the semantical method of nomination such types of relations are relevant: a) subordination of concepts that at the semantic level are expressed in the processes of expansion and narrowing of meaning; b) intersection, that is the basis of semantical process of metaphorical and metonymical transfers.
Semantical neologisms are formed from roots, affixes and difficult lexical units (including word combinations). While analysing the innovations it is also important to distinguish between the use of existent lexemes for the nomination of new objects and phenomena and the usage of this method for vivid, synonymous detonation of objects and phenomena which have already the expressively neutral name. For example, "pen" - a hand-held device used as a writing tool to input commands and data into a computer via a screen versus "kicking" as a synonyms to the words of "exciting", "great", "lively", "excellent."
There are such semantic processes, except of above enumerated, as worsening and improvement of meaning, which are connected with the change of connotative element of the word meaning.
Narrowing of meaning takes place in accordance with the model: A? a (where A is the basis of the seme of gender meaning (archiseme), and a - the differentiating seme of the specific meaning). For example, "adventure" - a type of computer game in which the player plays a role in a story involving stimulated danger; an instance of playingthis king of game; or a computer slang word "export" - to transfer (data) out of one computer system into another or from one application within a computer to another; in business sphere neologism "niche" is also used in the narrowed meaning - a position from which an entrepreneur is able to exploit a gap in the market; a profitable section of a market; or informal "hole-in-the-wall" that means "a machine usually installed in an outside wall of a bank, which dispenses cash and gives information about a person's bank account". In the policy of Canada is widely functioned neologism "allophone" - a person, living in a French Canada who speaks a language (and is of ethnic descent) other than French or English.
In prison slang is widely spread the innovation "beast" - a person convicted of a sexual offence, that also shows narrowing or specialization of the meaning.
Expansion of meaning passes according to the model A · a ? A. For example, trainspotter in the slang usage gets the generalized meaning "an obsessive follower of any minority interest or specialized hobby". The other slang lexical unit also shows the expansion of the meaning: "babe" - an attractive young woman; similarly as well as "item" - a couple in romantic or sexual relationship, and "squeegee" - a person, who cleans the windowscreen of a car stopped in traffic and solicits payment from the driver.
The metaphorical transfers consists in the removal or replacement of the basic (genitive) seme (archiseme) at saving of differential (specific seme) which becomes the initial seme of denomination. This type of semantical transformation can be