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Англійські неологізми - Дипломна робота

nominations, as well as compound words represent the tendency to universalization and rationalization of the language, demonstrate different degrees of motivation and division.Thus the degree of their division and motivation is lower, that is explained by the presence of the hidden cut off elements.
Conversion as the method of coinage of new words by derivation has considerably reduced its activity for the last years. Active models are mutual transitions of nouns and verbs, V?N and N?V: drive-by (a shooting carried out from a moving vehicle), add-in (something which is added to a computer or other system to improve in capabilities or perfomance), to mouse (to carry out by using a mouse), to reskill (to retrain workers in the skills required by a modern business). A new model appears: shortening of the phrase and substantivation of the adjective A?N, for example: plastic (credit cards, debit cards, and other plastic cards which can be used in place of money to pay for goods and services).
Shortening as a result of the action of the law of language economy are also widely used among the word building methods of coinage neologisms. Thus a word has a tendency to shortening both initial and final elements of the structure. For example, burb - a suburb, a suburban area; rad - really good or exciting; cool, hip, awesome (from "radical"). Some innovations assimilate in the language, getting new signs: diss (an insult or put-down, from "disrespect"), or skell (a homeless person, a derelict, from "skeleton"). The others remain changeable shortened variants of existing equivalents in the language: aero (aerodynamic in design or appearance), impro (a form of live entertainment based on improvisation and interaction with the audience). It worth mentioning that the shortened words are most often used in the colloquial speech in the case when the speakers exactly know, what the question is about, and there is no need to use the initial variant of the certain word.
Acronymy is also rather active method of word building and words-acronyms are often spread among linguists and become current, at first as fashionable words (buzz-words), later as comfortable colloquial forms. For example, FOB (a supporter of President William Jefferson Clinton; from "Friend Of Bill"), FAQ (a document, usually in electronic form online, containing a list of questions most often asked about a particular subject, usually with answers to them; from "Frequently Asked Questions") Acronyms from current phrases, also exist and function in the language, as for example: BTW (by the way) or TINA (there is no alternative).
Stylistic stratification of neologisms
Any social conduct, including the language activity is regulated by rules. As stylistic stratification of neologisms is based on the pragmatic rules which impose the limitation on the use of lexical units, it is necessary to keep to the chart structure of lexical meaning of a word, developed by M.B.Nikitin.
In his monograph "Lexical meaning in word and combination of word" he praves that in the content of a word it is pointed out the intension (kernel of meaning); implication (all stereotype associations which are traditionally connected with the denotation), emotion (subjectively-accessed component: feeling tone, emotive valeur). The components of word meaning can be correlated with any three aspects of meaning. If they are correlated with intension, denotative inclination of a word outlines the spheres of its adequate usage, the circle of possible situations of intercourse. For example, the detonative specifics of the words applet, add-in limits their usage by the scopes of the situations linked with the use of computer. Pragmatic components can be localized in the implication of meaning. For example, it is necessary to know for the correct use of word babe (an attractive girl or young woman) that the components of this type encode the social, age-old, sexual, ethnic parameters of speakers, their role relations. And finally, given components can be correlated with the emotion of meaning and expressed through the mark in the dictionary (pejorative, mocking, ironical, derogatory), through the emotionally-painted word building elements, through the assessed words in definition. These pragmatic components encode such parameters of situational variation as the tone of situation of intercourse, intention of the linguist. According to this it is possible to distinguish three large layers in a new vocabulary:
1) words with intensional pragmatic components;
2) words with emotional pragmatic components;
3) words with implicational pragmatic components.
Semantical models of coinage of neologisms
Among the researchers there is no the only thought about the status of semantic innovations. Criteria, according to which it is possible to distribute the semantic changes on those which conduce to appearance of an independent word, and those which result is the appearance of a new meaning in already existent lexical unit aren't developed till now. The hypothesis that semantic word creation consists in reinterpretation of previous words and in forming of homonyms by disintegration of word in two ones is the only offered way out from this situation.
It follows that about complement, independent lexical unit it is possible to speak only in the case when the semantic changes of the polysemantic word where brought to the complete gap of the community of the semantic connection between the separate meanings of the word, that is to the formation of the homonym with the absolutely different meaning. But this thought is not often adopted because there are no objectively certain algorythms of referring of innovations to the homonyms. From the other side,some authors eliminate semantic innovations considerating neologisms at all. Nevertheless nowadays two ways of studying of semantic neologisms were set in our time: 1) distinguishing of semantic word building models and establishment of formal criteria of grant to innovations the status of new word-homonyms. 2) the analysis examination of the results of the semantic transformations as the new meanings in the semantic structure of existed lexemes.
It's worth mentioning that at differentiation of concepts "formation of word" and "formation of meaning" the change of lexico-grammatical description of a word is necessary to point out that if a word passes to the other lexico-grammatical digit, the question is about lexico-semantical word-building. For example, the word "squeegee" the old meaning of which is "rubber-edged implement set on a handle and used for cleaning window" and the new meaning of it is "a person who cleans the window screen of a car stopped in traffic and solicits payment from the driver".
Both meanings are incorporated by the same semantic "cleaning windows" but transition of a word in other lexico-grammatical category is needed to consider as a result of lexico-semantical word building. It means that words are independent lexical units (homonyms).
However such perspective on the whole, approach to the question about the lexico-semantical word-building has the row