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Англійські неологізми - Дипломна робота

but also its affixes show their semantic signs, for example: reskill (to retrain in the skills required by a modern business), outsource (to obtain by contract from a source outside an organization or area; to contract out).
Some affixes are more used in everyday intercourse because they have marking "slang". One of the most active suffixes of slang is a suffix -y/-ie, which developed a new humiliatingly-ironical meaning, forming neologisms after the model N+-y/-ie?N. Words, coined with the help of this suffix, limited in the use and are kept indoors of inofficial communication, mainly among young people. For example: fundie (a fundamentalist, esp. a religious one), foodie (a person whose hobby or main interest is food, a gourment). Although, at the same time in the language there continues to exist the suffix -y in its diminished-tender meaning: techie (an expert in or enthusiast for technology, esp. computing, a technician), monty (everything that is necessary or appropriate, "the works"). Besides the sufficient word building activity is shown by the omonymical suffix -y which forms new adjectives, for example: touchy-feely (given to a tactile expression of one's feellings, motivated by emotion rather than intellect).
The analysis of structure feature of word building bases leads that among them abbreviations, acronyms, compound words and even phrases which become a new tendecy in derivation of affixes are distinguished. One of the productive models with bases of a similar type is the Acronym model+-ie?N. The innovations after such algorythm have status of words which represent the division of society in the USA and Great Britain into different groups and layers, for example: yuppie (young urban professional) and rumpie (rural upwardly mobile professional). By analogy with these neologisms, other words appear: muppie (middle-aged urban professional person), yeepie (youthful energetic elderly people), woopie (well-off older person).
To neologisms of this type it is possible to concern such words as: dinkie (double income, no kids) - childless family, nilkie (no income, lost of kids) - family with many children of an unemployed person. But the lexical units, formed after this model have ironical connotation strengthened due to the suffix -ie, and their usage is limited by the representatives of the middle class.
On the whole for the word building models of neologisms with the help of affixes the characteristic tendecy is the multisignificance. Especially ramified semantic structure is distinguished by the models of formation nouns with the help of affixes that it is conditioned by their cognition feature to mark objects, phenomena, processes of the real reality in the whole variety of their connections and relations, each of which can find oneself in man's eyeshot and become the object of process of cognition. The system of word building with the help of affixes of the English language is not only one of the active neogenic methods of addition to dictionary composition but also is marked by high potential to self-fulfilling, what testifies about the appearance of new word building models; affixes and also new components in their semantic structure, and pragmatic differentiation of affixes after different spheres of the use also differs.
The appearance of derivatives is caused by not only nominative necessity of a new denotation but also stylistic factors: the use of derivatives is instrumental in the syntactic compactness of the text, its expressiveness.
The prime example of such words is the compound words where semantic and syntactic compression is observed the same time - the expansion of syntactic functions of initial structure. Compound words are coined in two ways: composition which means drafting of bases and confluence (blending telescopy), the process of formation of the unit itself in which one truncated element and complete form of the other element, is connected.
An underproductive type of making up compound words is also possible. That is the contamination which means imposition of final element of the first word to the omonymical beginning of the second one, as for example, in the word of "twigloo" ("twig"+"igloo"). The formation of telescope nominations and word-bars is caused by "the principle of the least efforts" and is one of the law economy display of language efforts.
The basic model of composition is N+N N besides the new word can be written in one and with a hyphen. For example, basehead (a person who habitually takes cocaine in the form of freebase or crack), towelhead (a person who wears a headcloth or turban), toyboy (an attractive young man who is kept as a lover by an older person), lifestyle (the total sum of the likes and dislikes of a particular customer). The productive model is also A+N A: for example, hard-ass (difficult, tough, uncompromising). Neogenic are also not traditional models, as Adv.+Num. V (for example, "to high-five - to slap high-fives in celebration of something or as a greeting"); V+Adj. Adv ("drop-dead" - referring to an attractive person: very stunningly).
Some researchers indicate to existence of separate type of compound words, namely syntactic, the basis of which serve combinations of words; sentences or parts of sentence. The semantic capacity of derivation units is practically unlimited, as they are able to include variable information a linguist intends to pass. For example, hole-in-the-wall (machine which dispenses cash and gives information about a person's bank accounts).
The model like this is very interesting Prep.+N Adj.: for example, "for-profit" - intended to make a profit, profit-making. A "bulky" of these new words promotes their shortening, as a result acronyms appear, for example: do-it-yourself D.I.Y.; ready-to-wear r-t-w.
Such word building method as blanding is rather widespread in the modern English, for example: Japanimation (animated cartoons produced in Japan). Thus both models withtruncating of the component and models with truncating of both elements are active. In the first case first part of the compound word can be unchangeable (for example, netizen - network user, from "net" + "(cit)izen", mokney - inauthentic and affected imitation of cockney, from "mock" + "(cock)ney"), or its final element (for example, feminazi - a radical feminist, from "femi(nist)" + "nazi", emergicenter - a clinic offering emergency outpatient treatment, from "emerg(ency)" + "center"). Making up of the new telescope words has been activating during the last decades, where both elements are the subject to truncating, namely the final truncating of the first component and initial truncating of the following: edutainment (entertainment with an educational aspect; from "edu(cation)" + "(enter)tainment"), vegelate (chocolate which contains a certain proportion of vegetable fat other than cocoa butter, from "vege(table)" + "choco(late)").
A tendency to formation of "haplological" telescope neologisms is multiplied in which laying of phonemes on the collision of two words is observed, for example: faction (fiction, based on facts, from "fact" + "(fi)ction").