... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Англійські неологізми - Дипломна робота

Англійські неологізми - Дипломна робота

unfashionable, boring or socially inept person; basuco (from Colombian) - a cheap impure form of cocaine; bimbo (from Italian) - an attractive but unintelligent young woman; 4) scientific and technical borrowings: biogeocenose (from Russian) - ecological system. Barbarisms differ by the greatest degree of newness which are not assimilated units of a new vocabulary, for example: jihad (from Arabic) - a struggle. Xanizms are close to the barbarisms (they are adopted units which represent the specific of the country - the source of borrowing): za-zen (from Japanese) - a type of mediation in Zen Buddhism.
The difference between barbarisms and xanizms that the first ones have synonyms in language-recipient, and the second ones mean the phenomena, objects and concepts, that exist only in a language-source and are strange for other countries.
Substantial diminishment of amount of the traced words is noticeable: traffic calming (from German Verkehrsberuhihung) - the deliberate slowing of traffic, esp. along residential streets, by construction of road humps or other obstacles to progress.
The result of borrowings is not only the addition to lexical composition of the language, the stylish colouring of lexical units changes in the process of borrowing and their inner structure homonymical relations are formed, that promotes, the variation of lexical units and partly predetermines it.
Less neological are morphological neologisms, which appear after standards which exist in the linguistic system from morphemes present in a language. The question is in word building and such regular word building processes as affixation, conversion, word composition, shortening, etc. The main sign, that distinguished morphological neologisms from phonological and from borrowings is the presence of analogy and typology in the basis of their creation.
As to semantic neologisms, the unique problem at their studying is the establishment of criteria after which it is possible to distinguish a separate independent word or a new meaning of already existing word, which are the results of semantic changes.
Word building models of coinage neologisms
The first attempt of creation taxonomy of word building facilities was made by Platon in his "Cratyl". And although nowadays there appeared several new types of word building, such as acronymy or telescopy (blend), it is possible to speak about existence of traditional taxonomy of word building. The role of word building consists not only in making up new words but in producing the words already existing in a language.
The Bulk of innovations of the last decades, after the researches of I.B. Andrusiak, are the derivative units, formed from words and combination of words and combination of words present in the language, by the various methods of word building.
It is known that one of the most widespread methods of forming derivative words is affixation. There are other facilities of word building such as conversion, composition, blending, shortening acronymy.
For the last decades in coinage of new words there were used 103 suffixes after the I.B. Zabotkinoyi research: - ability, - able, -ac, - asy, - (i)al, - ally, - (i)an, - age, -ance, - ant, - ar, - arium, - ary, - ase, - ate, - atic, - ation, - ative, - cade, - dom, - ectomy, - ed, - ee, - eer, - eme, - emia, - er/or, ers, - ery, - ese, - est, - esque, - et, - eteria, - ette, - fest, - hood, - ia, -iasis, - ic, - ica, - ical, - ician, - icity, - ics, - idase, - ide, - ie, - ification, - ify, - igenic, - in, - ine (adj.), - ine (nominal), - ing, - ino, - ion, - ional, - ish, - ism, - ist, - ite (person), - ite (mineral), - ity, - ium, - ive, - ization, - ize, - ized, - less, - let (te), - ly, - metry, - mycin, - ness, - nik, -o, - oid, - ol, - ola, ologist, ology, - oma, - on, - onium, - orium, - ory, -ose, -osis, - ous, - plex, -ry, -s(area of study), - s (plural of disease), - scape, - ship, - ster, - sville, - tron, - tuplet, - ure, - y(adj.), - y (nominal).
Besides, in formation of new units actively participate semisuffixes (or combing forms): - athon, - friendly, - gate, - gram, - hydro, - intensive, - info, -man, -ship, - oriented, a/oholic, - pedia/paedia, - speak, - tool, - watcher, - wide.
Among prefixes which take part in the coinage of neologisms, prefixes and semiprefixes of the Latin origin prevail. It is worth mentioning the most productive of them: ant-, co-, de-, ne-, non-, post-, pre-, sub-, in-.
The characteristic feature of modern suffixes is their severe pragmatic attaching after the certain sphere of their usage, that is their terminology. Besides the considerable part of innovations belongs to the scientific and technical sphere.
The most active on this stage of development of the language derivation is realized in making up new stylistically neutral words which represents the phenomena of public life and acquires wide distribution among linguists.
For example, the suffix -er, semantics of which foresees the agent of action, v+er?N: stalker (a person who follows or pesters somebody, with whom he/she has become obsessed), comper (a person who enters for competitions regularly in order to win as many prizes as possible), slacker (a person regarded as being one of a large group of people, esp. of young adults who are perceived to lack a sense of direction in life). The model of creation neologism by addition to the noun the suffix -ing is interesting: N+ -ing?N, for example: hydrospeeding (a sport in which participants launch themselves down rapids holding on to a float); carjacking (the violent abduction or "hijacking" of a car or its driver).
In policy it is widespread derivation of neologisms with the help of suffix -ism or semisuffix -nomics to the proper names, for example: Brairism (the political and economic policies of the British Labour politician Tony Blair), Majorism, Clintonomics (the economic policies of President Clinton) Nixonomics. Especially important in the aspect of functional neology is efemerism (words of wide use in a certain period of public development, as a rule, connected with activity of political figures which after words pass to the general fund according to thedefinite events): Thatcherism, Raiganomics.It follows that this model activates as a result of certain changes in the life of the society.
The period of spreading of feministic movement also imposed the imprint on the linguistic system, expressed in the suffixes of the neutral tender colouring, for example: -eer - marketeer (a specialist in marketing), -tron - waitron (a waiter or waitress). The suffix -ed is used in formation of adjectives from verbs, for example, after the model V+ed?Adj. there appeared such neologisms as: oxygenated (containing oxygenate additives which reduce harmful emission such as carbon dioxide), caffeinated (containing caffeine, having had caffeine added), challenged (lacking a physical or mental attribute, not having a specified skill).
Word building with prefixes is less spread, but nevertheless lexical units demonstrate the semantic loading of prefixes and semiprefixes.
In fact not only the root of word