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different settings and storylines, aimed at a wide range of audiences. Anime is usually influenced by Japanese comics known as manga.
o d?tente (1960s). D?tente is French for relaxation. It was also the general reduction in the tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and a weakening of the Cold War, occurring from the late 1960s until the start of the 1980s. More generally, it may be applied to any international situation where previously hostile nations not involved in an open war "warm up" to each other and threats de-escalate.
o manga. Manga (??) is the Japanese word for comics and/or cartoons (not necessarily animated, this includes print cartoons); outside of Japan, it usually refers specifically to Japanese comics. Manga developed from a mixture of ukiyo-e and Western styles of drawing, and took its current form shortly after World War II.
" Trademarks are often neologisms to ensure they are distinguished from other brands. If legal trademark protection is lost, the neologism may enter the language as a genericized trademark. Example: Laundromat. A laundromat (U.S.), launderette (British), Washette (Southeastern U.S.) or washateria (Southwestern U.S.) is a store where clothes are washed and dried. This is often done by coin operated machines that are worked by the client. Laundromats may have a staff to wash the clothing; this is referred to as Fluff-n-Fold or drop-off service. Laundries are equipped with both washing machines and dryers, usually specialized ones designed to survive heavy use.
" Nonce words - words coined and used only for a particular occasion, usually for a special literary effect.
" Inverted - words that are derived from spelling (and pronouncing) a standard word backwards. Example: redrum
" Paleologism - a word that is alleged to be a neologism but turns out to be a long-used (if obscure) word. Used ironically.
Neologisms in literature
Many neologisms have come from popular literature, and tend to appear in different forms. Most commonly, they are simply taken from a word used in the narrative of a book; for instance, McJob(McJob is slang for a low-pay, low-prestige job that requires few skills and offers very little chance of intracompany advancement. The term comes from the fast-food restaurant McDonald's, but applies to any low-status job where little training is required and workers' activities are tightly regulated by managers. Most perceived McJobs are in the service industry, particularly fast food, copy shops, and retail sales.) from Douglas Coupland's Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture and cyberspace from William Gibson's Neuromancer. Sometimes the title of the book will become the neologism. For instance, Catch-22 (from the title of Joseph Heller's novel) and Generation X (from the title of Coupland's novel) have become part of the vocabulary of many English-speakers. Also worthy of note is the case in which the author's name becomes the neologism, although the term is sometimes based on only one work of that author. This includes such words as Orwellian (from George Orwell, referring to his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four) and Ballardesque (from J.G. Ballard, author of Crash). Kurt Vonnegut's Cat's Cradle was the container of the Bokononism family of Nonce words.
Lewis Carroll's poem "Jabberwocky" has been called "the king of neologistic poems" as it incorporated some dozens of invented words. The early modern English prose writings of Sir Thomas Browne 1605-1682 are the source of many neologisms as recorded by the OED
In psychology, a neologism is a word invented by a person suffering from a language disorder, which may occur in the context of psychosis or aphasia acquired after brain damage ; clinicians can sometimes use these neologisms, which often have meaning only to the subject, as clues to determine the nature of the disorder.
In theology, a neologism is a relatively new doctrine (for example, rationalism, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth can best be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith, dogma or religious teaching.). In this sense, a neologist is an innovator in the area of a doctrine or belief system, and is often considered heretical or subversive by the mainstream church.
Methods of coinage neologisms
The studying of linguistic vocabulary in a functional aspect foresees the analysis of methods of coinage neologisms, which enables to pass to the pragmatic aspect of new words. Taking into account the method of appearance neologisms are subdivided into: 1) phonological, 2) borrowing, 3) semantic, 4) syntactic, coined by combination of signs already existing in a language (word building, combination of words). It will be expedient to divide the last type of neologisms into morphological (word building) and phraseological (combination of words).
Phonological neologisms are formed from separate sounds and are unique by their configuration. Such words are sometimes called "artificial" or "invented". The new configurations of sounds are from time to time connected with the morphemes of Greek or Latin origin, example: adhocracy (a flexible organizational system designed to be responsive to the needs of the moment), acryl, perlon (synthetic materials). Words coined from exclamations also belong to the group of phonological neologisms such as: to zap (to make more powerful, exciting; to revitalize) formed from a similar word "zap" which was used in comics for the transmission of the sound of space weapon (in a graphic form ). It is possible here to deliver the words formed by the change of writing for passing their pronunciation, for example: wannabe (a person who wants to be someone else) coined from "want to be", wheneye (a person who exasperates listeners by continually recounting tales of his experiences and exploits) arose up due to an introductory phrase "when I…" Such type of neologisms can be delivered to "strong neologisms", in fact they have the high degree of connotation of newness, that increase by an unusual thing and freshness of their form.
It is possible to concern borrowings which are characterized by untypical for the English language by the distribution, by the morphological division and absence of motivation to strong neologisms. And although on this stage borrowings are on periphery of lexical system, they are still anintegral part of innovations. For the last decade growth of borrowings from Japanese ands Spanish has taking place. The main centers of attraction for new borrowings are: 1) art and culture: cinemateque (from French), karaoke (from Japanese); 2) social and political life: Ossi, Wessi (from German) - denotation of citizen of the East and West Germany; fatwa (from Arabic) - a legal decision or ruling given by Islamic religious leader; karoshi (from Japanese) - death caused by overwork or job-related exhaustion; 3) everyday life: taqueria (from Spanish) - a restaurant specializing in Mexican food, particularly tacos; otaku (from Japanese) - people who are obsessed with the trivia of a particular hobby; geek (from Danish) -
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