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Англійські неологізми - Дипломна робота

structures.
o quark. (1960) Quarks are one of the two basic constituents of matter in the Standard Model of particle physics.
o radar . (1941) It is a system used to detect, range (determine the distance of), and map objects such as aircraft and rain.
o posterized. Posterization occurs when a region of an image with a continuous gradation of tone is replaced with several regions of fewer tones, resulting in an abrupt change from one tone to another. This creates an effect somewhat similar to that of a simple graphic poster.
o beetle bank. (early 1990s) In agriculture, a beetle bank is a strip of grass or perennials in a field that provide habitat which fosters and provides cover for insects hostile to pests. They are used as a form of biological pest control to reduce or replace the use of insecticides.
" Science fiction concepts created to describe new, futuristic ideas. Examples:
o Ringworld (1971) Ringworld is a Hugo and Nebula award-winning 1970 science fiction novel by Larry Niven, set in his Known Space universe. The work is widely considered one of the classics of science fiction literature. It is followed by three sequels, and it ties in to numerous other books in the Known Space universe.
o Dyson Sphere (circa 1960) A Dyson sphere is a hypothetical megastructure first described in 1960 by the physicist Freeman Dyson in a short paper published in the journal Science entitled "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infra-Red Radiation".
" Political - words or phrases created to make some kind of political or rhetorical point, sometimes perhaps with an eye to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Example:
o political correctness (1990). Political correctness (also politically correct, P.C. or PC) is a term used in English-speaking countries to describe real or perceived attempts to impose limits on the acceptable language and terms used in public discussion. While it usually refers to a linguistic phenomenon, it is sometimes extended to cover political ideology or public behavior.
o sie and hir (neologisms). Sie and hir are two terms proposed to serve as gender-neutral third person singular personal pronouns in English . These neologisms are used by some people who feel that there are problems with gender-specific pronouns because they imply sex and/or gender. However, sie and hir are very rare compared to other solutions and most commentators feel that it is unlikely that they will catch on.
o homophobia (1969). The term "homophobia" is a portmanteau derived from the words homosexual and phobia. In current usage it is employed to refer to the aversion to, or disapproval of physical intimacy and sexual expression between individuals of the same sex and those who engage in such activities. This aversion may range from mild to intense.
o meritocracy (1958) As the suffix "-cracy" implies, meritocracy is strictly speaking a system of government based on rule by ability (merit) rather than by wealth or social position. In this context, "merit" means roughly intelligence plus effort. However, the word "meritocracy" is now often used to describe a type of society where wealth, income, and social status are assigned through competition, on the assumption that the winners do indeed deserve (merit) their resulting advantage. As a result, the word has acquired a connotation of Social Darwinism, and is used to describe aggressively competitive societies, with large inequality of income and wealth, contrasted with egalitarian societies.
o dog-whistle politics (1990). Dog-whistle politics is a term used to describe a type of political campaigning which is "only heard" by a specific intended audience. It is usually used pejoratively by those that do not approve of the tactics.
o genocide. Genocide is the systematic killing of substantial numbers of people on the basis of ethnicity, religion, political opinion, social status or other particularity. The most widely known example is the Holocaust (the genocide of various groups, especially Jews, during World War II by Nazi Germany and its collaborators). Lesser known in the West are Stalin's forced starvation of Ukrainian farmers, or Mao's murder of 20 to 60 million Chinese
o Some political neologisms, however, are intended to convey a negative point of view. Example: brutalitarian
" Pop-culture - words or phrases evolved from mass media content or used to describe popular culture phenomena (these may be considered a subsection of slang). Examples:
o jumping the shark. Jumping the shark is a metaphor used by US television critics and fans since the 1990s. The phrase, popularized by Jon Hein on his website, jumptheshark.com, is used to describe the moment when a pop culture icon, originally a TV show or similar episodic medium, is in retrospect judged to have passed its "peak" and shows a noticeable decline in quality, or when it has undergone too many changes that take away the original charm and interest.
o Chuck Cunningham syndrome. Chuck Cunningham syndrome is a term that refers to a television series in which a main character or a character otherwise important to the show's plot is removed without explanation. The term comes from the character Chuck Cunningham in the American television series, Happy Days.
o Baldwin (a good-looking man, such as one of the Baldwin family of actors)
o Scooby Gang (a group which humorously resembles the teens on the cartoon Scooby-Doo)
o sex-it-up a recently used phrase describing the memo that was said to be the cause of the Iraq invasion.
" Imported - words or phrases originating in another language. Typically they are used to express ideas that have no equivalent term in the native language. Examples:
o zen (1727). Zen is the Japanese name of a well known branch of Mah?y?na Buddhist schools, practiced originally in China as Chan (?), and subsequently in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Zen emphasizes the role of sitting meditation (zazen) in pursuing enlightenment. Zen can be considered a religion, a philosophy, or simply a practice depending on one's perspective. It has also been described as a way of life, work, and an art form.Zen is the common name for this branch of Buddhism in Japanese as well as in English. However, in the last half of the 20th century, Zen has become an international phenomenon, with centers in many countries around the world.
o ao dai (1960s). The ?o d?i (pronounced 'ao yai' in the South; pronounced 'ao zai' in the North) is a traditional Vietnamese dress worn by women. It is the uniform for female students in Vietnamese secondary schools and universities. The ?o d?i is and has been moreprevalent in southern Vietnam than in northern Vietnam.
o Tet (1968). T?t Nguy?n ??n (derived from Chinese ???), more commonly known as T?t (?), is the most important holiday in Vietnam. It is the Vietnamese New Year which is based on the Chinese calendar, a lunisolar calendar.
o anime (1988). Anime (???) is Japanese animation, sometimes referred to by the portmanteau Japanimation. It is often characterized by stylized colorful images depicting vibrant characters in a variety of
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